Reference Article for Acupuncture:

What Scientific Research Tells Us About Acupuncture
Southwest Veterinary Symposium 2017
Narda G. Robinson, DO, DVM, MS, FAAMA

1.  Wang S-M, Kain ZN, White PF. Acupuncture analgesia: II. Clinical considerations. Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2008;106(2):611–621.

2.  Takahashi T. Mechanism of acupuncture on neuromodulation in the gut - a review. Neuromodulation. 2011;14(1):8–12.

3.  White A, Editorial Board of Acupuncture in Medicine. Western medical acupuncture: a definition. Acupuncture in Medicine. 2009;27(1):33–35.

4.  Lindley S, Cummings TM. Acupuncture - what is it and how does it work? In: Essentials of Western Veterinary Acupuncture. Chapter 3. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing;2006:33–44.

5.  Ernst E, White AR. Acupuncture for back pain: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1998;158:2235–2241.

6.  Irnich D, Behrens J, Gleditsch JM, Stör W, Schreiber MA, Schöps P, Vickers AJ, Beyer A. Immediate effects of dry needling and acupuncture at distant points in chronic neck pain: results of a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled crossover trial. Pain. 2002;99:83–89.

7.  Ghoname EA, Craig WF, White PF, Ahmed HE, Hamza MA, Henderson BN, Gajraj NM, Huber PJ, Gatchel RJ. Percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for low back pain: a randomized crossover study. JAMA. 1999;281(9):818–823.

8.  Carlsson CPO, Sjölund BH. Acupuncture for chronic low back pain: a randomized placebo-controlled study with long-term follow-up. The Clinical Journal of Pain. 2001;17:296–305.

9.  White P, Lewith G, Prescott P, Conway J. Acupuncture versus placebo for the treatment of chronic mechanical neck pain: a randomized, controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2004;141:911–919.

10. Irnich D, Behrens N, Molzen H, König A, Gleditsch J, Krauss M, Natalis M, Senn E, Beyer A, Schöps P. Randomised trial of acupuncture compared with conventional massage and "sham" laser acupuncture for treatment of chronic neck pain. BMJ. 2001;322:1574–1578.

11. Blossfeldt P. Acupuncture for chronic neck pain - a cohort study in an NHS pain clinic. Acupuncture in Medicine. 2004;22(3):146–151.

12. Molsberger AF, Mau J, Pawalec DB, Winkler J. Does acupuncture improve the orthopedic management of chronic low back pain - a randomized, blinded, controlled trial with 3 months follow up. Pain. 2002;99:579–587.

13. Leibing E, Leonhardt U, Köster G, Goerlitz A, Rosenfeldt J-A, Hilgers R, Ramadori G. Acupuncture treatment of chronic low-back pain - a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial with 9-month follow-up. Pain. 2002;96:189–196.

14. Han HJ, Jeong SW, Kim JY, Jeong MB, Kim JS. The effect of conservative therapy on thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease on 15 dogs. Journal of Veterinary Clinics. 2003;20(10):52–58.

15. Graw U. Acupuncture as the standard therapy for discopathy with ataxia of the hind legs. Ganzheitliche Tiermedizin. 2003;17(1):9–13.

16. Kim MS, Kim SY, Seo KM, Nam TC. Acupuncture treatment for acute torticollis (wry neck) in a dog. Journal of Veterinary Clinics. 2004;21(4):395–397.

17. Jeong SM, Park SW. Application of traditional acupuncture on canine intervertebral disc disease. Journal of Veterinary Clinics. 2004;21(1):49–51.

18. Janssens LAA. Trigger points in 48 dogs with myofascial pain syndromes. Veterinary Surgery. 1991;20(4):274–278.

19. Kim M-S, Xie H, Seo K-M, Nam T-C. The effect of electro-acupuncture treatment for chronic back pain in horses. Journal of Veterinary Clinics. 2005;22(2):144–147.

20. Klide AM, Martin BB. Methods of stimulating acupuncture points for treatment of chronic back pain in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1989;195(10):1375–1379.

21. White AR. Interview. Modern Medicine. 1999;67:46.

22. Manheimer E, White A, Berman B, Forys K, Ernst E. Meta-analysis: acupuncture for low back pain. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2005;142:651–663.

23. Kukuk P, Lungenhausen M, Molsberger A, Endres HG. Long-term improvement in pain coping for cLBP and gonarthrosis patients following body needle acupuncture: a prospective cohort study. European Journal of Medical Research. 2005;10:263–272.

24. Furlan AD, van Tulder M, Cherkin D, Tsukayama H, Lao L, Koes B, Berman B. Acupuncture and dry-needling for low back pain: an updated systematic review within the framework of the Cochrane Collaboration. Spine. 2005;30:944–963.

25. Longworth W, McCarthy PW. A review of research on acupuncture for the treatment of lumbar disk protrusions and associated neurological symptomatology. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 1997;3(1):55–76.
26. Ceccherelli F, Rigoni MT, Gagliardi G, Ruzzante L. Comparison of superficial and deep acupuncture in the treatment of lumbar myofascial pain: a double-blind randomized controlled study. The Clinical Journal of Pain. 2002;18(3):149–153.

27. Itoh K, Katsumi Y, Kitakoji H. Trigger point acupuncture treatment of chronic low back pain in elderly patients - a blinded RCT. Acupuncture in Medicine. 2004;22(4):170–177.

28. Baldry P. Superficial versus deep dry needling. Acupuncture in Medicine. 2002;20(2–3):78–81.

29. Wong JY. A Manual of Neuro-Anatomical Acupuncture. Volume I: Musculo-Skeletal Disorders. Toronto: The Toronto Pain and Stress Clinic Inc.;1999.

30. Gunn CC, Milbrandt WE, Little AS, Mason KE. Dry needling of muscle motor points for chronic low-back pain: a randomized trial with long-term follow-up. Spine. 1980;5(3):279–291.

31. Gillette RG, Kramis RC, Roberts WJ. Suppression of activity in spinal nocireceptive 'low back' neurons by paravertebral somatic stimuli in the cat. Neuroscience Letters. 1998;241:45–48.

32. Wang Y, Shen J, Wang WM, et al. Scalp acupuncture for acute ischemic stroke: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012; 2012:480950. doi: 10.1155/2012/480950.

33. Lee C, Crawford C, Wallerstedt D, et al. The effectiveness of acupuncture research across components of the trauma spectrum response (tsr): a systematic review of reviews. Systematic Reviews. 2012;1:46. doi: 10.1186/2046-4053-1-46.

34. Yan Z, Ding N, Hua H. A systematic review of acupuncture or acupoint injection for management of burning mouth syndrome. Quintessence International. 2012;43(8):695–701.

35. Cheng HM, Chung YC, Chen HH, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of acupoint stimulation on smoking cessation. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 2012;40(3):429–442.
36. Holmer Pettersson P, Wengstrom Y. Acupuncture prior to surgery to minimize postoperative nausea and vomiting: a systematic review. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2012;21(13–14):1799–1805.

37. Linde K, Allais G, Brinkhaus B, Manheimer E, Vickers A, White AR. Acupuncture for tension-type headache. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2009 Jan 21;(1):CD007587.

38. Zhao L, Guo Y, Wang W, et al. Systematic review on randomized controlled clinical trials of acupuncture therapy for neurovascular headache. Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2011;17(8):580–586.

39. Lee JA, Park SW, Hwang PW, et al. Acupuncture for shoulder pain after stroke: a systematic review. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2012;18(9):818–823.

40. Furlan AD, Yazdi F, Tsertsvadze A, Gross A, Van Tulder M, Santaguida L, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and safety of selected complementary and alternative medicine for neck and low-back pain. Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine. 2012;2012:953139.

41. Lee JH, Choi TY, Lee MS, et al. Acupuncture for acute low back pain: a systematic review. The Clinical Journal of Pain. 2013;29(2):172–185.

42. Linde K, Allais G, Brinkhaus B, Manheimer E, Vickers A, White AR. Acupuncture for tension-type headache. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2009 Jan 21;(1):CD007587.

43. Vickers AJ, Cronin AM, Maschino AC, et al. Acupuncture for chronic pain: individual patient data meta-analysis. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2012;172(19):1444–1453.

44. Manheimer E, Cheng K, Linde K, Lao L, Yoo J, Wieland S, et al. Acupuncture for peripheral joint osteoarthritis. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2010:CD001977.

45. Cao L, Zhang XL, Gao YS, et al. Needle acupuncture for osteoarthritis of the knee. A systematic review and updated meta-analysis. Saudi Medical Journal. 2012;33(5):526–532.

46. Biemans JMAE, van Balken MR. Efficacy and effectiveness of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation in the treatment of pelvic organ disorders: a systematic review. Neuromodulation. 2013;16:25–34.

47. Zheng CH, Huang GY, Zhang MM, et al. Effects of acupuncture on pregnancy rates in women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fertility and Sterility. 2012;97(3):599–611.

48. Smith CA, Collins CT, Crowther CA, et al. Acupuncture or acupressure for pain management in labour. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2011;(7):CD009232. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009232.

49. Chung YC, Chen HH, Yeh ML. Acupoint stimulation intervention for people with primary dysmenorrhea: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2012;20(5):353–363.

50. Kay Garcia M, McQuade J, Haddad R, et al. Systematic review of acupuncture in cancer care: a synthesis of the evidence. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2013;31(7):952–60. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2012.43.5818.

51. Choi T-Y, Lee MS, and Ernst E. Acupuncture for cancer patients suffering from hiccups: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2012;20:447–455.

52. Sui Y, Zhao HL, Wong VC, et al. A systematic review on use of Chinese medicine and acupuncture for treatment of obesity. Obesity Reviews. 2012;13(5):409–430.

53. Gakiya HH, Silva DA, Gomes J, et al. Electroacupuncture versus morphine for the postoperative control of pain in dogs. Acta Cirurgica Brasileira. 2011;26(5):346–351.

54. Cassu RN, Silva DA, Genari Filho T, et al. Electroanalgesia for the postoperative control pain in dogs. Acta Cirurgica Brasileira. 2012;27(1):43–48.

55. Han HG, Yoon HY, Kim JY, et al. Clinical effect of additional electroacupuncture on thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniation in 80 paraplegic dogs. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 2010;38(6):1015–1025.

56. Joaquim JG, Luna SP, Brondani JT, et al. Comparison of decompressive surgery, electroacupuncture, and decompressive surgery followed by electroacupuncture for the treatment of dogs with intervertebral disk disease with long-standing severe neurologic deficits. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2010;236(11):1225–1229.

57. Laim A, Jaggy A, Forterre F, et al. Effects of adjunct electroacupuncture on severity of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing hemilaminectomy because of acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2009;234(9):1141–1146.

58. Han H-J, Yoon H-Y, Kim J-Y, et al. Clinical effect of additional electroacupuncture on thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniation in 80 paraplegic dogs. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 2010;38(6):1015–1025.

59. Hayashi AM, Matera JM, Fonseca Pinto AC. Evaluation of electroacupuncture treatment for thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2007;231:913–918.

60. Sanchez-Araujo M, Puchi A. Acupuncture prevents relapses of recurrent otitis in dogs: a 1-year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial. Acupuncture in Medicine. 2011;29(1):21–26.

61. Zhang Y, Zhang RX, Zhang M, et al. Electroacupuncture inhibition of hyperalgesia in an inflammatory pain rat model: involvement of distinct spinal serotonin and norepinephrine receptor subtypes. British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2012;109:245–252.

62. Leung AY, Kim SJ, Schulteis G, Yaksh T. The effect of acupuncture duration on analgesia and peripheral sensory thresholds. BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine. 2008;8:18.

63. Chae Y, Lee H, Kim H, et al. The neural substrates of verum acupuncture compared to non-penetrating placebo needle: an fMRI study. Neuroscience Letters. 2009;450(2):80–84.

64. Zeng F, Qin W, Ma T, et al. Influence of acupuncture treatment on cerebral activity in functional dyspepsia patients and its relationship with efficacy. The American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2012;107:1236–1247

65. Li J, Li J, Chen Z, et al. The influence of PC6 on cardiovascular disorders: a review of central neural mechanisms. Acupuncture in Medicine. 2012;30(1):47–50.

66. Beissner F, Deichmann R, Henke C, et al. Acupuncture - Deep pain with an autonomic dimension? NeuroImage. 2012;60:653–660.

67. Mayo E. Acupuncture and wound healing. American Journal of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine. 2012;7(1):45–51.

68. Gerard PS. Images in clinical medicine: acupuncture-like fragments. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1995;332(26):1792–1794.

69. Imray TJ, Hiramatsu Y. Radiographic manifestations of Japanese acupuncture. Radiology. 1975;115:625–626.

70. Durkes T. Gold bead implantation in small animals. The Medical Acupuncture Web Page. From the International Veterinary Acupuncture Society (IVAS) 25th Annual Congress. The original link (, accessed on 9 July 2007) could not be accessed and was modified on 7/11/17

71. Effect of acupuncture on pain and quality of life in canine neurological and musculoskeletal diseases.
Language: English
Can Vet J. September 2017;58(9):941-951.

72. Acupuncture elicits neuroprotective effect by inhibiting NAPDH oxidase-mediated reactive oxygen species production in cerebral ischaemia.
Language: English
Sci Rep. December 2015;5(0):17981.

73. Is Acupuncture Effective for Hypertension? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0127019.
Xiao-Feng Zhao 1, Han-Tong Hu 2, Jia-Shen Li 2, Hong-Cai Shang 3, Hai-Zhen Zheng 2, Jian-Fei Niu 2, Xue-ming Shi 4, Shu Wang 5

74. Reduction in Pain Medication Prescriptions and Self-Reported Outcomes Associated with Acupuncture in a Military Patient Population.
Language: English
Med Acupunct. August 2017;29(4):229-231.
Paul Crawford 1, Donald B Penzien 2, Remy Coeytaux 3

75. Comparison of Point Placement by Veterinary Professionals with Different Levels of Acupuncture Training in a Canine Cadaver Model.
Language: English
J Acupunct Meridian Stud. October 2017;10(5):360-370.
Toni Yang 1, Justin Shmalberg 2, Lindsay Hochman 1, Erin Miscioscia 1, Meghan Brumby 1, Kelsey McKenna 1, Amber Roth 1

76. Effects of Acupuncture on 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Mice.
Language: English
J Acupunct Meridian Stud. August 2017;10(4):252-260.
Cuicui Chen 1, Xiaozhu Liu 2, Yinfeng Li 2, Huankun Liang 1, Kangyan Li 1, Jiali Li 1, Chengwu Cheng 1, Xianpan Liu 1, Shuhai Zhong 1, Laiqing Li 3, Yan Wang 4

77. Retrospective study of the clinical effects of acupuncture on cervical neurological diseases in dogs.
Language: English
J Vet Sci. September 2016;17(3):337-45.
Ching-Ming Liu 1, Fang-Chia Chang 2, Chung-Tien Lin


78. Acupuncture for Chronic Pain: Individual Patient Data Meta-analysis.
Arch Intern Med. October 2012;172(19):1444-53.
Andrew J Vickers 1, Angel M Cronin, Alexandra C Maschino, George Lewith, Hugh Macpherson, Nadine E Foster, Karen J Sherman, Claudia M Witt, Klaus Linde, Acupuncture Trialists' Collaboration

79. Acupuncture for Small Animal Neurologic Disorders.
Language: English
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. January 2018;48(1):201-219.
Patrick Roynard 1, Lauren Frank 2, Huisheng Xie 3, Margaret Fowler 4

80. Comparison of decompressive surgery, electroacupuncture, and decompressive surgery followed by electroacupuncture for the treatment of dogs with intervertebral disk disease with long-standing severe neurologic deficits.
J Am Vet Med Assoc. June 2010;236(11):1225-9.
Jean G F Joaquim 1, Stelio P L Luna, Juliana T Brondani, Sandra R Torelli, Sheila C Rahal, Fernando de Paula Freitas

81. Mechanisms of Acupuncture Analgesia
ABVP 2016
Christine Eckermann-Ross, DVM, CVA, CVCH
Avian & Exotic Animal Care and Veterinary Hospital, Raleigh, NC, USA; Adjunct Assistant Professor, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA

82. Acupuncture and Osteoarthritis
Australian Veterinary Association Proceedings 2011
Huisheng Xie, DVM, PhD, MS
Chi Institute, Reddick, FL, USA

83. Acupuncture and Hospice
International Association of Animal Hospice and Palliative Care 2014
Monica Turenne, DVM, CVA
Four Paws Veterinary Wellness, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

84. Veterinary Acupuncture for Neurologic Conditions
World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress Proceedings, 2011
Allen M. Schoen, DVM, MS, PhD (hon.)
Veterinary Institute for Therapeutic Alternatives (VITA), Sherman, CT, USA

85. Kline K, Caplan E, Joseph R. Acupuncture for neurologic disorders. In Schoen AM (ed), Veterinary Acupuncture, Ancient Art to Modern Medicine. Mosby, 2001. 179–192.

86. Janssens L. Acupuncture for thoracolumbar and cervical disk disease. In Schoen AM (ed), Veterinary Acupuncture, Ancient Art to Modern Medicine. Mosby, 2001. 193–198.

87. Loo WC. Symptoms associated with impaired transmission of nerve impulses to different muscle areas and their treatment with acupuncture. Am J Acupunct 1985;13:319–330.

88. Stefanatos J. Treatment to reduce radial nerve paralysis. Vet Med 1984;79:67–71.

89. Veterinary Medical Acupuncture for Gastrointestinal Conditions
World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress Proceedings, 2011
Allen M. Schoen, MS, DVM, PhD (hon.)
Center for Integrative Animal Health Care, Sherman, CT, USA

90. Long-term functional outcome of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy versus extracapsular repair in a heterogeneous population of dogs.
Vet Surg. January 2013;42(1):38-50.
Samantha A Nelson 1, Ursula Krotscheck, Jeremy Rawlinson, Rory J Todhunter, Zhiwu Zhang, Hussni Mohammed


Reference Articles for Assisi Loop Technology:

Rohde, C., et al. 2015. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Reduce Postoperative Interleukin-1β, Pain, and Inflammation: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study in TRAM Flap Breast Reconstruction Patients. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, May, New York, NY.

Pulsed electromagnetic fields have been shown to reduce postoperative pain, inflammation, and narcotic requirements after breast reduction and augmentation surgical procedures. This study examined whether pulsed electromagnetic field therapy could produce…

Read Abstract

Rohde, C., et al. 2009. Effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Post Operative Pain: A Double-Blind Randomized Pilot Study in Breast Reduction Patients. Bioelectomagnetic Society Meetings June, Davos, Switzerland.

Post-surgical pain increases patient morbidity and slows healing, particularly if narcotics are employed for pain management. Therefore the surgeon is continually looking for other means to control post-operative pain. There is a growing body of clinical…

Read Abstract

Strauch, et al. 2009. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Increase Angiogenesis in a Rat Myocardial Ischemia Model. Bioelectomagnetic Society Meetings June, Davos, Switzerland.

Myocardial ischemia with consequent loss of functioning cardiac muscle, continues to be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in our society. In response to ischemic injury the myocardium attempts to retain or increase its blood supply.…

Read Abstract

Pilla, A. 2009. Unified Mechanism for Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Bioeffects: Cellular, Animal and Clinical Evidence. Bioelectomagnetic Society Meetings June, Davos, Switzerland.

The author proposed starting in 1972 that weak EMF signals could be configured to modulate ion binding at electrified cell membrane/aqueous interfaces using the electrochemical information transfer model. That model described all voltage dependent…

Read Abstract

Johnson, et al. Modulation of carrageenan-induced paw edema and hyperalgesiain the rat with pulsed magnetic field therapy. Bioelectromagnetic Society Meeting, June 2008. San Diego, CA.

Post-operative acute inflammation continues to affect a significant percentage of surgical patients. Current anti-inflammatory agents rarely cause a decrease in recovery time, and harbor several potential side effects and adverse drug interactions.…

Read Abstract

Pilla, A. 2008. A proposed electrochemical mechanism for EMF Bioeffects. Bioelectromagnetics Society, June, 2008. San Diego, CA.

This study proposes PEMF accelerates tissue repair by directly affecting the kinetics of Ca2+ binding to calmodulin (CaM). This allows a priori configuration of EMF signals to optimally couple to the Ca2+/CaM transduction pathway, from which further…

Read Abstract

Heden, P and Pilla, A. 2008. Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Postoperative Pain: A Double-Blind Randomized Pilot Study in Breast Augmentation Patients. Aesth Plast Surg 32: 660.

Postoperative pain may be experienced after breast augmentation surgery despite advances in surgical techniques which minimize trauma. The use of pharmacologic analgesics and narcotics may have undesirable side effects that can add to patient morbidity.…

Read Abstract

Casper, D. 2008. PEMF potentiates the Induction of Nitric Oxide by Glutamate and 6-Hydroxydopamine in a Neuronal Cell Line. Bioelectomagnetic Society Meetings June, Davos, Switzerland.

Nitric oxide (NO) is essential for neuronal viability, but it can also be toxic in high concentrations. Generally, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) produces NO that participates in survival signaling pathways. During inflammation, inducible NOS (iNOS)…

Read Abstract

Casper, D, et al. 2008. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Modulate cyclic GMP via a Nitric Oxide-Dependent manner in a Dopaminergic Neuronal Cell Line. Society for Neuroscience.

There is currently no neuroprotective treatment for Parkinson’s disease, where dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra degenerate. Experimental evidence provides several mechanisms by which neuronal survival might be increased that include;…

Read Abstract

Strauch, et al. 2007. Pulsed Magnetic Fields Accelerate Cutaneous Wound Healing in Rats. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 120: 425.

Previous studies of pulsed magnetic fields have reported enhanced fracture and chronic wound healing, endothelial cell growth, and angiogenesis. This study characterizes the biomechanical changes that occur when standard cutaneous wounds are exposed to…

Patel, M. el al. 2006. Limited Myocardial Muscle Necrosis Model Allowing for Evaluation of Angiogenic Treatment Modalities. Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery, 22, 611.

The currently accepted model for creating infarcted cardiac tissue in a rat model involves ligation of the left anterior descending artery (LAD), either proximally or at the bifurcation level. This procedure requires significant technical expertise and,…

Read Abstract

Strauch, et al. Pulsed Magnetic Field Therapy Increases Tensile Strength in a Rat Achilles’ Tendon Repair Model. J Hand Surg 2006;31:1131–1135.

To examine the effect of pulsing electromagnetic fields on the biomechanic strength of rat Achilles’ tendons at 3 weeks after transection and repair.

Read Abstract

Weber, et al. 2004. Experimental Pulsed Magnetic Fields Applied to a Transferred Arterial Loop Support the Rat Groin Composite Flap. Plast. Reconstr.Surg. 114: 1185.

Pulsed magnetic fields have been shown to stimulate neovascularization in the authors’ laboratory. The rat groin composite flap was used to create a prospective randomized trial to test the effectiveness of these pulsed magnetic fields. The skin paddle to…

Read Abstract

Roland, et al. 2000. Pulsed Magnetic Energy on a Microsurgically Transferred Vessel. Plast. Reconstr. Surg 105:1371.

This article reports the findings of a study that attempted to elucidate whether pulsed magnetic energy stimulates neovascularization in vivo, using a microsurgically created arterial loop model in a prospective randomized trial of 108 rats (n = 12/group).…

Read Abstract

Kloth, et al. 1999. Effect of pulsed radio frequency stimulation on wound healing: A double-blind pilot clinical study. Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, F Bersani, ed. Plenum, NY, 1999, pp. 875-878.

This double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective clinical pilot study was aimed at determining the effect of pulsed radio frequency (PEMF) stimulation on the healing of chronic wounds in spinal cord injured patients. Based on other reports that…

Read Abstract

Pilla, A., et al. 1996. Effect of pulsed radiofrequency therapy on edema from grades I and II ankle sprains: a placebo controlled, randomized, multi-site, double-blind clinical study. J Athl Train S31:53.

To determine the effect of PEMF therapy on edema volume in a ankle sprain injury. PEMF therapy was provided in a double-blind, placebo-controlled fashion, in addition to standard treatment (rest, elevation, compression, cryotherapy), for Grades I and II…

Zidan N, Fenn J, Griffith E, Early PJ, Mariani CL, Munana KR, Guevar J, Olby N.. The effect of electromagnetic fields on postoperative pain and locomotor recovery in dogs with acute, severe thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion: a randomized placebo-controlled, prospective clinical trial.. .

Spinal cord injury (SCI) due to acute intervertebral disc extrusions (IVDE) is common in dogs and is treated by surgical decompression. Dogs with sensorimotor complete injuries have an incomplete recovery. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) reduce…


Reference Articles for Photobiomodulation (Laser therapy):


Using Photobiomodulation Therapy To Heal a Crushing Carpus Injury

Explore the role photobiomodulation (laser) therapy played in healing a crushing carpus injury in this case report.

Published: NAVTA Journal - Veterinary Nursing in Action. June/July 2018. Pgs 14-17

Author(s): Renaud Houyoux, LVT


Laser Therapy – Can Your Practice Afford Not to Offer It?

Learn about laser therapy and its ability to improve clinical outcomes, which can ultimately lead to increasing clinic income.

Published: Impact. June 2018. Online Exclusive.

Author(s): Mark Callanen, PT, DPT, OCS


Photobiomodulation Therapy: Healing at the Speed of Light

Read this article to gain a basic understanding of how photobiomodulation therapy works, and how veterinary nurses can maximize this modality’s therapeutic benefit.

Published: Today's Veterinary Nurse. Summer 2018. Vol 1, No 3, Pgs 18-22

Author(s): Renaud Houyoux, LVT


Intended Effect of Therapeutic Laser: Photobiomodulation

Gain a basic understanding of how mechanism of delivery can determine the therapeutic effectiveness of photobiomodulation.

Published: Physical Therapy Products. February/March 2018, Pg. 31.

Author(s): Mark Callanen, PT, DPT, OCS


Maumee Valley Veterinary Clinic, Acute Spinal Injury, Australian Shepherd

Patient was exhibiting knuckling of the front feet following assumed trauma.

Author(s): Dr. Nahrwold, Maumee Valley Veterinary Clinic, Woodburn, IN


McClintock Animal Care Center, IVDD, Yorkshire Terrier Mix

Patient presented with paresis of the pelvic limbs.

Author(s): Dr. Marnie Duplissis, McClintock Animal Care Center, Tempe, AZ


LightForce Laser Therapy Case Summary – Acute Knee Pain

In this case summary, see how this 18 year-old elite high school baseball player found relief from his acute knee pain after a series of 6 laser therapy treatments, allowing him to begin rehabilitation exercises sooner and return to play faster.

Author(s): Ross Kees, DC


Effective Dose Delivery – The Key Component Joining Two Growing Technologies

Learn how to get the best results from 2 top veterinary technologies (photobiomodulation therapy and regenerative medicine) by better understanding how they are dosed.

Published: Veterinary Practice News. March 2018. Vol 30, No 3, Pg 48

Author(s): Heather Weir



The Light Fantastic: Laser Therapy Can Be a Non-Invasive Solution to Reducing Inflammation

Learn why laser therapy (photobiomodulation) is an effective, non-invasive tool for pain and inflammation reduction and how to decide which therapy laser is right for your practice.

Published: Chiropractic Economics. February 6, 2018. Issue 2, Pg. 31.

Author(s): Mark Callanen, PT, DPT, OCS


Flexible Nine-Channel Photodetector Probe Facilitated Intraspinal Multisite Transcutaneous Photobiomodulation Therapy Dosimetry In Cadaver Dogs

This translational research study successfully designed an intraspinal probe to measure the amount of transcutaneous PBMT light transmittance to reach a canine spinal canal.

Published: J. Biomed. Opt. 23(1), 010503 (2018), doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.23.1.010503.

Author(s): Daqing Piao, Lara A. Sypniewski, Christian Bailey, Danielle Dugat, Daniel J. Burba and Luis De Taboada


Objectifying Lameness – A Better Way to Communicate Lameness to Pet Owners

Learn how employing a Stance Analyzer can help you in attempting to objectify lameness and enable better client communication.

Published: Veterinary Practice News. January 2018. Vol 30, No 1, Pg 40

Author(s): Erica Shoults, DVM



Skin Color and Tissue Thickness Effects on Transmittance, Reflectance, and Skin Temperature When Using 635 and 808nm Lasers in Low Intensity Therapeutics

This study examined the role that skin color and tissue thickness play on on transmittance, reflectance, and skin heating from red/infrared laser light.

Published: Lasers Surg Med. 2017 Nov 27. doi: 10.1002/lsm.22760

Author(s): Souza-Barros L, Dhaidan G, Maunula M, Solomon V, Gabison S, Lilge L, and Nussbaum E



Lingfield Equine Vets, Desmitis, Selle Francaise Mare

Signalment: 11-year-old Selle Francaise mare.

Diagnostics and Exam Findings: Diagnosed with acute bilateral and biaxial desmitis/degeneration of all four hindlimb suspensory branches after clinical examination, diagnostic analgesia, ultrasonography and radiography.

Laser Treatment: Initially treated three times weekly using a desmitis/tendonitis setting delivering 6960 J over 9 minutes and 40 seconds at 12 W with continuous wave on [...]

Author(s): Lingfield Equine Vets



Worldwide Veterinary Service, Severe Wounds/Degloving injuries, Mixed Breed

The patient suffered from degloving lesions and friction burns after falling off a moving vehicle she was tied on to during transport.

Author(s): Dr. Santiparp and Jeanne Marchig, Worldwide Veterinary Service (WVS), International Veterinary Training Centre (ITC), Chiang Mai, Thailand.



Baring Boulevard Veterinary Hospital, Post-Surgical Dehiscence, Boxer

Patient presented with complete dehiscence of previous surgical site of MCT removal. The owners had just moved into town and the patient had the growth removal just prior to moving.

Author(s): Dr. Hogle, Baring Boulevard Veterinary Hospital, Reno, NV, US

Turning Photons into Results – Shining New Light on Laser Therapy

Learn the key components for successful and repeatable photobiomodulation therapy treatments.

Published: Veterinary Practice News. December 2017. Vol 29, No 12, Pg 40

Author(s): John C. Godbold Jr., DVM


Laser Therapy (Photobiomodulation): An Integral Part of Wound Management

Discover the benefits and best practices when integrating laser (photobiomodulation) therapy into wound management protocols.

Published: Veterinary Practice News. November 2017. Vol 29, No 11, Pg 50

Author(s): Ron Riegel, DVM



BonenClark Equine, Bone Fracture, Thoroughbred

3-year-old thoroughbred graded stakes horse with a dorsal cortical stress fracture of left front cannon bone.

Author(s): Dr. Greg BonenClark, DVM, Diplomate ACVS of BonenClark Equine located in Ocala, FL. Images courtesy of Ferguson & Hammock Equine Hospital in Ocala, FL. Laser therapy performed by The Sanctuary, Ocala, FL USA.



Ron Riegel, DVM, Tendon Injury, Warmblood

Patient (a show jumper) presented with acute right thoracic limb lameness after taking part in competition over a poor surface.

Author(s): Ron Riegel, DVM



K-9 Case Summary: Trooper Porter

See how this K-9 officer returned to duty 1 year post-injury with the help of PRP and stem cell treatments.

Published: Veterinary Practice News. October 2017. Vol 29, No 10, Pg 52

Author(s): Sherman Canapp, DVM, CCRT, DACVS, DACVSMR


Conservative Management of Stifle Injury for Working Dog

This article details a successful mulitmodal treatment approach for inflammation and minor ligament tears in a canine patient.

Published: Veterinary Practice News. September 2017. Vol 29, No 9, Pg 44

Author(s): Debbie (Gross) Torraca, DPT, MSPT, Dipl. ABPTS, CCRP



One Dog’s Journey to Recovery

Case study demonstrates how regenerative medicine can be integrated into a treatment approach for canine hip and shoulder pain with good results.

Published: Veterinary Practice News. August 2017. Vol 29, No 8, Pg 58

Author(s): Matt Brunke, DVM, CCRP, CVPP, CVA



A Nonsurgical Approach to Hip Dysplasia Utilizing Hydrotherapy

Case study demonstrates effectiveness of incorporating hydrotherapy into physical rehabilitation protocols for hip dysplasia.

Published: Veterinary Practice News. June 2017. Vol 29, No 6, Pg 44

Author(s): Jodi Seidel, RVT. CCRP


Photobiomodulation and Athletic Performance

This article discusses the unique benefits photobiomodulation therapy provides to the canine athlete.

Published: Veterinary Practice News. May 2017. Vol 29, No 10, Pg 52

Author(s): Debbie (Gross) Torraca, DPT, MSPT, Dipl. ABPTS, CCRP


How Laser Therapy Can Benefit the Athletic Trainer

Discover one of the key reasons LightForce laser therapy is currently used in over 200 collegiate and professional athletic training rooms.

Published: Training & Conditioning. October 2017. Volume XXVII, No. 07, Pg. 12.

Author(s): Mark Callanen, PT, DPT, OCS


ACL Injuries and Photobiomodulation

Incorporating laser therapy into treatment protocols for ACL injuries may be one way to encourage improved recovery outcomes.

Published: Training & Conditioning. November 2016. Volume XXVI, No. 08, Pg. 45.

Author(s): Perry Nickelston, DC, NKT, FMS, SFMA


Fallmouth Veterinary Hospital, Nonspecific Hepatitis, Standard Poodle

Hyporexia progressing to anorexia. Recent ingestion of crab shells and vomiting. Weight loss, cachexia, and lethargy were actively progressing.

Author(s): Dr. Douglas Andrews, Fallmouth Veterinary Hospital, Maine, USA


Spring Hill Veterinary Clinic, Deep Puncture Wound, Border Collie

Patient was attached by another dog during his daily walk.

Author(s): Dr. Erin Goelitz, Spring Hill Veterinary Clinic, Illinois, USA



Space Coast Veterinary Hospital, Large Necrotizing Wound, Pit Bull

Patient wandered off and returned with skin wounds. Patient was initially anesthetized for wound debridement upon presentation. Surgical revisits were required to further remove devitalized tissues five and nine days after the initial procedure. Laser treatment started on day ten.

Author(s): Dr. Sonia Pearson, Space Coat Veterinary Hospital, Florida, USA

Advanced Rehabilitation Center (MSU), Acupuncture Points, Labrador

Patient presented with a history of progressive exercise intolerance, muscle weakness, and respiratory stridor.

Author(s): Genia Smith, LVT, CCRP, Advanced Rehabilitation Center, Michigan State University, Michigan, USA

Stafford Veterinary Hospital, Tail Amputation, Hound Mix

Severe soft tissue injury: patient had repeatedly self-mutilated his tail, exposing bone and cartilage

Author(s): Dr. Michael Pride, Satfford Veterinary Hospital, New Jersey, USA


Pet Dominion Veterinary Clinic, Soft Tissue Wound, DSH

The patient presented with a full-thickness wound that exposed skeletal muscle at the wound bed following a blood transfusion.

Author(s): Dr. Bassett, Pet Dominion Veterinary Clinic, Rockville, MD


Belpar Pet Care Centre, Idiosyncratic Drug Reaction, Yorkie-Poo

Patient presented for a “sore” in the armpit, alopecia, and limping of the left thoracic limb.

Author(s): Dr. Gainey, Belpar Pet Care Centre, Canton, OH


Oak Ridge Animal Clinic, Thermal Burn, Shih Tzu

Patient suffering from thermal burn finds relief with laser therapy.

Author(s): Dr. Shannon Moffat, DVM & Mrs. Nicole Brown, RVT, Oak Ridge Animal Clinic, Ontario, Canada


All About Outcomes


Brian LaRue, clinical director at ATI Physical Therapy in Pike Creek, DE, discusses how the addition of deep tissue laser therapy has improved the effectiveness of their manual treatments and led to accelerated recovery times, resulting in a greater degree of patient satisfaction.

Published: ADVANCE for Physical Therapy & Rehab Medicine. July, 21 2014.

Published: ADVANCE for Physical Therapy & Rehab Medicine. July, 21 2014.

Author(s): Brian LaRue, DPT, ATC, CWcHPPreoperative low level laser therapy in dogs undergoing tibial plateau levelling osteotomy: A blinded, prospective, randomized clinical trial

This is a veterinary study that examined the use of a single dose of laser treatment before tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) surgery.

Published: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology (VCOT). 2017. Published online ahead of print. doi: 10.3415/VCOT-15-12-0198

Author(s): Rogatko CP, Baltzer WI, Tennant R



The mechanistic basis for photobiomodulation therapy of neuropathic pain by near infrared laser light

This study investigated the mechanistic basis of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

Published: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. 2017. Published online ahead of print. doi: 10.1002/lsm.22628

Author(s): Holanda VM, Chavantes MC, Wu X, Anders JJ



Effects of laser on endurance of the rotator cuff muscles

Double blind, cross-over study of twenty healthy subjects on endurance of the shoulder external rotator muscle group during isokinetic dynamometry.

Published: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. 2015; 47(S26): 34-45. doi: 10.1002/lsm.22351.

Author(s): Levine D, De Taboada L, Frydrych W, Dale RB



Role of low-level laser therapy in neurorehabilitation

Review that covers the mechanisms that are thought to operate at molecular and cellular levels in LLLT

Published: PM R. 2010;2(12 Suppl2): S292-S305. doi:10.1016/j.pmrj.2010.10.013.

Author(s): Hashmi JT, Huang Y-Y, Osmani BZ, Sharma SK, Naeser MA, Hamblin MR



Lumbosacral disease treated with regenerative medicine

Read about how Trudy, a 7-year-old female neutered bloodhound in Scottland was treated for lumbosacral disease with regenerative medicine. The case includes radiographs, thermal images, and regenerative medicine treatment details.

Published: Veterinary Practice News. March 2017.

Author(s): Andrew Armitage, BSc, BVM&S, MRCVS


Combine therapeutic laser, acupuncture

This article highlights the benefits of using both laser therapy and acupuncture for a variety of conditions such as arthritis, intervertebral disc disease, and wound management.

Published: Veterinary Practice News. February 2017.

Author(s): Terri Rosado, DVM, CVA, CCRT


Photobiomodulation Therapy Comes of Age

In this article learn about the history of photobiomodulation including wavelength and power considerations for achieving results with photobiomodulation therapy.

Published: Anders J. Photobiomodulation therapy comes of age. BioPhotonics. Feb-March 2017; 24(2): 28.

Author(s): Juanita J. Anders, PhD



Lasers in Canine Physical Rehabilitation

In this article Evelyn Orenbuch, DVM, DACVSMR, CAVCA discusses her personal experience with lasers in veterinary physical rehabilitation.

Published: Integrative Veterinary Care. Winter Issue 2016.

Author(s): Evelyn Orenbuch, DVM, DACVSMR, CAVCA



Therapeutic laser in veterinary medicine

Book chapter co-authored by LiteCure CEO Brian Pryor. This provides a good overview of PBM therapy for veterinary applications.

Published: Vet Clin Small Anim. 2015; 45: 45-56.

Author(s): Pryor B, Millis DL



The effects of photobiomodulation on muscle performance of the shoulder external rotators

This study compared the effects of photobiomodulation therapy when it was applied to the shoulder rotator muscle group 30 minutes prior to exercise.

Published: 2017 APTA Combined Sections Meeting. Presentation abstract. Control ID: 2559006. San Antonio, Feb. 15-18, 2017.

Author(s): Levine D, Dodson M, Helms R, Passmore R, Patel M

Photobiomodulation delays the onset of skeletal muscle fatigue in a dose-dependent manner

Double blind, placebo controlled, crossover study to examine dose response ergonomic properties of PBM therapy.

Published: Lasers Med Sci. 2016; 31(7): 1325-1332. doi:10.1007/s10103-016-1979-7

Author(s): Larkin-Kaiser KA, Borsa PA, Baweja HS, Moore MA, Tillman MD, George SZ, Christou EA



Characterization of macrophage/microglial activiation and effect of photobiomodulation in the spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain

A Spared Nerve Injury model was performed on rats and mechanical allodynia was assessed with an electronic Von Frey device.

Published: Pain Medicine. 2016: Published online ahead of print. pnw144. doi: 10.1093/pm/pnw144

Author(s): Ketz AK, Byrnes KR, Grunberg NE, Kasper CE, Osborne L, Pryor B, Tosini NL, Wu X, Anders JJ

The evolution of laser therapy

Read about the evolution of laser technology into medical applications.

Published: Veterinary Practice News. July 2012.

Author(s): Brian Pryor, PhD

Optical properties of human skin, subcutaneous and mucous tissues in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm

The absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of human skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue and mucous in the wavelength range from 400 to 2000 nm were measured. These values have been used in modelling tissue-light interactions.

Published:  J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 2005; 38: 2543–2555.

Published: J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 2005; 38: 2543–2555.

Author(s): Bashkatov AN, Genina EA, Kochubey VI, Tuchin VV

International Association for the Study of Pain. “Myofascial Pain.”

Position paper from the International Association for the Study of Pain that recommends the use of laser therapy in the treatment of Myofascial Pain: “Laser Therapy shows strong evidence of effectiveness for pain relief.”

Published: Global Year Against Musculoskeletal Pain. IASP. October 2009-October 2010. Web. August 4, 2012. <>. Accessed on Dec. 14, 2016: > 2009-2010 Musculoskeletal Pain > Fact Sheets > Myofascial

Intracellular signaling cascades following light irradiation

This paper reviews the available literature on molecular signaling pathways involved in photobiomodulation therapy stimulation for the enhancement of cell proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis in various indications. The pathways through activating receptor tyrosine kinases are also highlighted in LLLT-induced neuroprotection, wound healing, and skeletal muscle regeneration.

Published:  Laser Photonics Rev. 2014; 8(1): 115–130. doi: 10.1002/lpor.201300015

Published: Laser Photonics Rev. 2014; 8(1): 115–130. doi: 10.1002/lpor.201300015

Author(s): Wu S, Xing D



Effect of diode laser in the treatment of patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial

Study to evaluate pain reduction efficacy of treatment with GaAlAs laser (980 nm) with a large diameter spot size combined with exercise. The study evaluated 100 patients with chronic low back pain. At the end of the 3 week period, the Laser + exercise group showed a significantly greater decrease in pain than did the [...]

Published: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. 2014; 32(9): 490-494.

Author(s): Vallone F, Benedicenti S, Sorrenti E, Schiavetti I, Angiero A


Low level laser treatment of tendinopathy: a systematic review with meta-analysis

Review of clinical trials of laser therapy for the treatment of tendinopathy.  Dosages used in the 12 positive studies would support the existence of an effective dosage window that closely resembled current recommended guidelines. Conclusion: LLLT can potentially be effective in treating tendinopathy when recommended dosages are used.

Published:  Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. 2010; 28(1): 3-16. [...]

Published: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. 2010; 28(1): 3-16. doi: 10.1089=pho.2008.2470

Author(s): Tumilty S, Munn J, McDonough S, Hurley DA, Basford JR, Baxter GD


Quantitative analysis of transcranial and intraparenchymal light penetration in human cadaver brain tissue

This study investigated the light penetration gradients in the human cadaver brain using a Transcranial Laser System with a 30 mm diameter beam of 808 nm wavelength light. In addition, the wavelength dependence of light scatter and absorbance in intraparenchymal brain tissue using 660, 808, and 940 nm wavelengths was investigated. Transcranial application of 808 [...]

Published: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. 2015; 47(4): 312-322. doi 10.1002/lsm.22343

Author(s): Tedford CE, DeLapp S, Jacques S, Anders J


Short-term effects of high-intensity laser therapy versus ultrasound therapy in the treatment of people with subacromial impingement syndrome: a randomized clinical trial

Randomized controlled trial of laser therapy vs. therapeutic ultrasound in 70 patients with clinically verified subacromial impingement syndrome. Laser therapy was shown to have significantly greater benefit than ultrasound in reducing pain and improving the articular movement, functionality and muscle strength of the affected shoulder.

Published:  Phys Ther. 2009; 89(7): 643-652.

Published: Phys Ther. 2009; 89(7): 643-652.

Author(s): Santamato A, Solfrizzi V, Panza F, Tondi G, Frisardi V, Leggin BG, Ranieri M, Fiore P


Correction for Santamato, Solfrizzi, Panza, et al. “Short-term effects of high-intensity laser therapy versus ultra-sound therapy…” Phys Ther. 2009; 89:643-652.

Correction for Santamato, Solfrizzi, Panza, et al. “Short-term effects of high-intensity laser therapy versus ultra-sound therapy…” Phys Ther. 2009; 89:643-652.

Published: Physical Therapy. 2009; 89(9): 999.

Author(s): Santamato A, Solfrizzi V, Panza F, Tondi G, Frisardi V, Leggin BG, Ranieri M, Fiore P



Low-level laser therapy (LLLT; 780 nm) acts differently on mRNA expression of anti- and pro-inflammatory mediators in an experimental model of collagenase-induced tendinitis in rat

A rat model of induced tendonitis was used to evaluate the effect of laser therapy on inflammatory signaling.   The laser group had significantly lower mRNA for IL-6, COX-2 and TGF-β than control animals in both acute and chronic phases.  Laser therapy significantly reduced mRNA TNF-α only at the chronic phase. Laser therapy is effective for [...]

Published: Lasers in Medical Science. 2011; 26: 85–94. doi: 10.1007/s10103-010-0811-z

Author(s): Pires D, Xavier M, Araujo T, Silva JA Jr, Aimbire F, Albertini R



Improved cognitive function after transcranial, light-emitting diode treatments in chronic, traumatic brain injury: two case reports

Two case studies are presented that demonstrate the potential effectiveness of laser therapy applied transcranially to the forehead and scalp for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Published: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. 2011; 29(5): 351-358. 10.1089/pho.2010.2814

Author(s): Naeser MA, Saltmarche A, Krenge MHl, Hamblin MR, Knight JA



Treatments for traumatic brain injury with emphasis on transcranial near-infrared laser phototherapy

Review and presentation of retrospective data on 10 patients with traumatic brain injury who were treated with Class IV laser.

Published: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. 2015; 11: 2159-2175. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S65809

Author(s): Morries LD, Cassano P, Henderson TA


Low level laser therapy for sports injuries

Report on the use of laser therapy for sports injuries. For 10 years, the hospital had used laser therapy for treatment of sports injuries and report that 10 W is more effective than 150 mW and 1 W laser therapy.

Published:  Laser Therapy.2013; 22(1): 17-20.

Published: Laser Therapy.2013; 22(1): 17-20.

Author(s): Morimoto Y, Saito A, Tokuhashi Y

Effectiveness of low-level laser therapy in temporomandibular disorder

Randomized placebo-controlled study to investigate the efficacy of LLLT in TMD. Patients in the treatment group received 15 treatments of 3 J/cm2 at 904nm.  Both groups improved in all measures over the study period. The laser group had significantly better improvement in the number of tender points and all range of motion measures.

Published:  Scandinavian Journal [...]

Published: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology. 2003; 32: 114-118. doi: 10.1080/03009740310000139

Author(s): Kulekcioglu S, Sivrioglu K, Ozcan O, Parlak M



Changes in absorbance of monolayer of living cells induced by laser radiation at 633, 670, and 820 nm

Absorption changes in HeLa cells were evaluated from 530-890 nm. Cytochrome c oxidase becomes more oxidized (implying increased cellular oxidative metabolism) at all wavelengths used. This study supports the hypothesis that the mechanism of photobiomodulation is related to the chromophore cytochrome c.

Published:  IEEE Journal on Selected Topics In Quantum Electronics. 2001; 7(6): 982-988.

Keywords:  cytochrome c [...]

Published: IEEE Journal on Selected Topics In Quantum Electronics. 2001; 7(6): 982-988.

Author(s): Karu T, Afanasyeva NI, Kolyakov SF, Pyatibrat LV, Welser L



Photobiomodulation in context of new data about multiple roles of ATP

Editorial on mechanisms of photobiomodulation with emphasis on new discoveries that ATP is not only the energy inside cells but also a critical signaling molecule that allows cells and tissues to communicate with one another.

Published:  Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. 2010; 28(2): 159-160. doi: 10.1089/pho.2010.2789

Published: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. 2010; 28(2): 159-160. doi: 10.1089/pho.2010.2789

Author(s): Karu T



Low-power laser therapy

Chapter on laser therapy written by one of the pioneers in the field of photobiomodulation.

Published:  In: Vo-Dinh T, editor. Biomedical Photonics Handbook. Boca Raton (FL)  CRC Press; 2003: 48-1-48-25.

Published: In: Vo-Dinh T, editor. Biomedical Photonics Handbook. Boca Raton (FL) CRC Press; 2003: 48-1-48-25.

Author(s): Karu



Biphasic dose response in low level light therapy–an update

Update on review paper for bi-phasic dose response (

Published:  Dose-Response. 2011; 9: 602-618. doi: 10.2203/dose-response.11-009.11-009.Hamblin

Keywords:  low level laser therapy, photobiomodulation, biphasic dose response, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, traumatic brain injury

Published: Dose-Response. 2011; 9: 602-618. doi: 10.2203/dose-response.11-009.11-009.Hamblin

Author(s): Huang Y-Y, Sharma SK, Carroll J, Hamblin MR

Biphasic dose response in low level light therapy

This review paper covers the current theory on basic mechanisms of laser therapy and discusses the effects of different dosing strategies. Cytochrome c is identified as the primary absorber of light in the near infrared leading to cellular changes related to ATP, NO and ROS levels. Different doses of laser therapy are shown to either [...]

Published: Dose-Response. 2009; 7(4): 358–383. doi: 10.2203/dose-response.09-027.Hamblin

Author(s): Huang Y-Y, Chen AC-H, Carroll JD, Hamblin MR



Effect of pulsing in low-level light therapy

Review of 33 studies comparing CW and pulsed laser treatments.  A common criticism of these studies is the lack of direct, like-for-like comparison of pulsed treatment to CW.  The article concludes “CW is the gold standard and has been used for all LLLT applications” and “there is no consensus on the effects of different frequencies [...]

Published: Lasers Surg Med. 2010; 42(6): 450–466. doi:10.1002/lsm.20950.

Author(s): Hashmi JT, Huang Y-Y, Sharma SK, Kurup DB, De Taboada L, Carroll JD, Hamblin MR


The bone and joint decade 2000–2010 task force on neck pain and its associated disorders

World Health Organization (WHO) taskforce concludes that laser therapy is beneficial for the treatment of neck pain.

Published: Spine. 2008; 33(4S): S5-S7. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181643f40.

Author(s): Haldeman S, Carroll L, Cassidy JD, Schubert J, Nygren Å


Low-level laser irradiation (InGaAlP-660 nm) increases fibroblast cell proliferation and reduces cell death in a dose-dependent Manner

In cell culture, primary fibroblasts treated with laser at 660 nm were shown to increase proliferation and decrease cell death at an irradiance of 2.5 W/cm2 and a fluence of 150 J/cm2.

Published:  Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. 2010; 28(S1): S151-S156. doi: 10.1089=pho.2008.2475

Published: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. 2010; 28(S1): S151-S156. doi: 10.1089=pho.2008.2475

Author(s): Frigo L, Favero GM, Lima HJC, Maria DA, Bjordal JM, Joensen J, Iversen VV, Marcos RL, Parizzoto NA, Lopes-Martins RAB


Frozen shoulder: the effectiveness of conservative and surgical interventions— systematic review

Systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of multiple conservative and surgical interventions for frozen shoulder.  The analysis found strong evidence for the use of laser therapy for short term pain relief.

Published:  British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2011; 45(1): 49-56. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2010.071431

Published: British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2011; 45(1): 49-56. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2010.071431

Author(s): Favejee MM, Huisstede BMA, Koes BW


High power laser therapy treatment compared to simple segmental physical rehabilitation in whiplash injuries (1 and 2 grade of the Quebec Task Force classification) involving muscles and ligamentsReview article thaat concludes that that High Power Laser Therapy is an effective treatment in patients with whiplash injury, compared to conventional simple segmental physical rehabilitation. Compared treatment with laser vs. standard physical therapy and found better results for VAS pain scores with laser treatment.

Published:  Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal. 2013; 3(2): 106-111. doi: 10.11138/mltj/2013.3.2.106

Keywords:  [...]

Published: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal. 2013; 3(2): 106-111. doi: 10.11138/mltj/2013.3.2.106

Author(s): Conforti M, Fachinetti GP



The nuts and bolts of low-level laser (light) therapy

This review covers the mechanisms of action of LLLT at a cellular and at a tissular level and summarizse the various light sources and principles of dosimetry that are employed in clinical practice. The range of diseases, injuries, and conditions that can be benefited by LLLT are summarized with an emphasis on those that have [...]

Published: Ann Biomed Eng. 2012; 40(2): 516-533. doi:10.1007/s10439-011-0454-7.

Author(s): Chung H, Dai T, Sharma SK, Huang Y-Y, Carroll JD, Hamblin MR

Read Study


Inhibitory effects of laser irradiation on peripheral mammalian nerves and relevance to analgesic effects: a systematic review


Systematic review of studies of laser therapy for inhibitory effects on peripheral nerve pain. In 13 of 18 human studies laser therapy was shown to slow conduction velocity and/or reduce the amplitude of compound action potentials.  Several mechanisms for the analgesic effects of laser therapy are also discussed.

Published:  Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. 2011; 29(6): 365-381. [...]


Published: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. 2011; 29(6): 365-381. doi: 10.1089/pho.2010.2928

Author(s): Chow RC, Armati P, Laakso E-L, Bjordal J, Baxter GD

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Achilles pain, stiffness, and muscle power deficits: Achilles Tendinitis–Clinical practice guidelines linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health from the Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association


The Orthopedic Section of the APTA recommends that clinicians should consider the use of laser therapy to decrease pain and stiffness in patients with Achilles tendinopathy.

Published:  J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2010; 40.9: A1-A26. doi:10.2519/jospt.2010.0305


Published: J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2010; 40.9: A1-A26. doi:10.2519/jospt.2010.0305

Author(s): Carcia CR, Martin RL, Houck J, Wukich DK

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Does phototherapy enhance skeletal muscle contractile function and postexercise recovery? A systematic review


Review of published laser therapy studies.  Phototherapy after resistance exercise may enhance contractile function, reduce exercise-induced muscle damage, and facilitate post-exercise recovery.

Published:  J Athl Training. 2013; 48(1): 57-67. doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-48.1.12

Keywords:  photobiomodulation, laser therapy, skeletal muscle fatigue


Published: J Athl Training. 2013; 48(1): 57-67. doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-48.1.12

Author(s): Borsa PA, Larkin KA, True JM

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The potential of light therapy for central nervous system injury and disease


Editorial by Dr. Juanita Anders, a luminary in the field of photobiomodulation that discusses the use of light as a neuro-restorative and neuro-protective therapy for the treatment of injury and disease of the central nervous system.

Published:  Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. 2009; 27(3): 379-380. doi: 10.1089/pho.2009.0053


Published: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. 2009; 27(3): 379-380. doi: 10.1089/pho.2009.0053

Author(s): Dr. Juanita J. Anders

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The comparison of effects between pulsed and CW lasers on wound healing


This study evaluated both CW and pulsed laser therapy in an elliptic wound model in rats.  This study is one of the few published reports that evaluates both pulsed and CW therapy compared to a sham control.  All laser parameters improved wound healing. Maximal benefit was achieved using CW laser therapy. Optimal dosing for wound [...]


Published: Journal of Clinical Laser Medicine & Surgery. 2004; 22(1): 15-18.

Author(s): Al-Watban FAH, Zhang XY

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Postherpetic neuralgia: case study of class 4 laser therapy intervention


Case study of laser treatment on a woman diagnosed with PHN (postherpetic neuralgia). The 73-year-old woman had pain in her upper back, shoulder and arm that had lasted for 15 years after a case of shingles.


Published: Clinical Journal of Pain. 2013; 49(10): e6-e9.

Author(s): Knapp DJ

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Class IV laser therapy; Effective for back and neck/shoulder pain


Study of 55 patients with low back pain who were randomized to receive either manual adjustment or adjustment followed by laser therapy. After 4 weeks, the laser therapy group had a 71% reduction in pain score (VAS) and was significantly better than manipulation alone.

Published:  ACBSP Poster abstract. Los Angeles, CA; June 2010.


Published: ACBSP Poster abstract. Los Angeles, CA; June 2010.

Author(s): Morries LD

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Ex vivo penetration of low-level laser light through equine skin and flexor tendons


This study examined the penetration efficiency of laser light (800 nm and 970 nm) through equine cadaver samples with various hair coat colors–unclipped, clipped and shaved. For haired skin, energy penetration was greatest for light-colored hair and least for dark-colored hair. Clipping or shaving improved penetration. For light skin, the 800 nm penetration was better;  [...]


Published: American Journal of Veterinary Research. 2016; 77(9): 991-999. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.77.9.991

Author(s): Duesterdieck-Zellmer KF, Larson MK, Plant TK, Sundholm-Tepper A, Payton ME



Major league relief–Laser therapy provides non-invasive treatment for elite athletes and weekend warriors


Laser therapy provides non-invasive treatment for elite athletes and weekend warriors.


Published: Advance for Directors in Rehabilitation. June 2009; 18(6): 33.

Author(s): Mike Frostad, ATC, George Poulis, MA, ATC, and Glenn Copeland, DPM

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Dose dilemmas in low level laser therapy – The effects of different paradigms and historical perspectives


Early paper published in 2001 that discusses the differences in dosing between laser acupuncture and laser therapy and some of the confusion in the literature.

Published:  Laser Therapy. 2001; 13: 102-109.

Keywords: laser acupuncture, laser therapy


Published: Laser Therapy. 2001; 13: 102-109.

Author(s): Chow RT

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Fit for Duty


Laser therapy reduces musculoskeletal injury rates at a Canadian pulp mill


Author(s): Jan Summersides, BScPT, FCAMPT, CGIMS & Delia Roberts, PhD, FACSM

Read Study


Essential tips for adding a new service to practice


Read about considerations for adding a new service to your practice.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. November 2016.

Author(s): Diane B. Miller, MBA

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Using Class IV laser after iliopsoas muscle strain


Read about how Class IV laser was used to treat an iliopsoas muscle strain in a 2 year old agility dog


Published: Veterinary Practice News. October 2016.

Author(s): Andrew Armitage, BSc, BVM&S, MRCVS

What vets often ask about laser therapy


This is the first in a series of answers to frequently asked laser therapy questions originally posed on one of Companion Animal Health’s educational “Ask an Expert” webinars.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. August 2016.

Author(s): Jeff Smith, DVM, CCRP

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Meta-analysis of pain relief effects by laser irradiation on joint areas


Meta-analysis of 22 trials of LLLT on joint pain. When the authors only considered trials with dose range predicted by Bjordal et al. in 2003 and WALT, the results were more positive.


Published: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery.2012; 30(8): 405-417.

Author(s): Jang H, Lee H

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Does addition of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in conservative care of knee arthritis successfully postpone the need for joint replacement?


The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of low-level laser therapy into standard conventional physical therapy in elderly with bilateral symptomatic tricompartmental knee arthritis can successfully postpone the need for joint replacement surgery.


Published: Lasers Med Sci. 2015; 30: 2335-2339. doi: 10.1007/s10103-015-1814-6

Author(s): Ip D

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The effect of low-level laser in knee osteoarthritis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial


Study designed to examine pain-relieving effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and possible microcirculatory changes measured by thermography in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA).


Published: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery.2009; 27(4): 577-584.

Author(s): Hegedűs B, Viharos L, Gervain M, Gálfi M

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Short-term efficacy of physical interventions in osteoarthritic knee pain. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo-controlled trials


Review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo-controlled trials where patients received active treatment with physical agents to treat osteoartritis of the knee (OAK).


Published: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2007; 8:51. doi:10.1186/1471-2474-8-51

Author(s): Bjordal JM, Johnson MI,Lopes-Martins RAB, Bogen B, Chow R, Ljunggren AE

Efficacy of low level laser therapy associated with exercises in knee osteoarthritis: a randomized double-blind study


A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of forty participants with knee osteoarthritis, aged between 50 and 75 years.


Published: Clinical Rehabilitation. 2011; 26(6): 523-533. doi: 10.1177/0269215511425962

Author(s): Alfredo PP, Bjordal JM, Dreyer SH, Rúbia S, Meneses F, Zaguetti G, Ovanessian V, Fukuda TY, Steagall Junior W, Martins RABL, Casarotto RA, Marques AP

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PRP for multiple shoulder tendinopathies


Read this case about 6-year-old neutered male boxer, Domino, who presented for thoracic limb lameness.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. September 2016.

Author(s): Andrew Armitage, BSc, BVM&S, MRCVS

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Delayed union femur fracture treated with laser therapy to stimulate bone healing


In this article, read about how a 1-year-old, spayed female mixed-breed dog recovered from a delayed union femur fracture with the aid of laser therapy.


Published: A Supplement to Today's Veterinary Practice. September/October 2016.

Author(s): Lisa Miller, DVM, CCRT

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Fire victims benefited from laser therapy


On September 12, 2015, the Valley Fire burned 70,000 acres in Northern California within 24 hours. The fire torched three communities, 1,400 homes and over 9,000 vehicles. See how laser therapy helped the pet, horse, and livestock victims in the area.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. May 2016.

Author(s): Jeff Smith, DVM, CCRP

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Case study in pain management


Read this case study about 11-year-old Tommie who was suffering from back pain. Read about the role of laser therapy and digital thermal imaging in Tommie’s case.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. March 2016.

Author(s): Jennifer F. Johnson, VMD, CVPP

Laser therapy and its role in pain management and rehabilitation


Read about the foundational principles of laser therapy.


Published: Canadian Vet, May/June 2016, Volume 11, No 3

Author(s): Jennifer F. Johnson, VMD, CVPP

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Showing gratitude with some laser therapy


Read about how Stoney Creek Veterinary Hospital in Morton, Pennsylvania is honoring K9 Veterans.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. June 2016.

Author(s): Jennifer F. Johnson, VMD, CVPP

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Using regenerative medicine to treat spinal cord injury


Read this case about how regenerative medicine was used to help Duncan recover from a spinal cord injury.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. February 2016.

Author(s): David R. Mason, B.Vet.Med, MRCVS, DACVS, DECVS

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Class IV laser therapy in avian, exotic pets


Read about the use of therapy laser for small exotic mammals, avian patients, and reptiles.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. September 2015.

Author(s): Robert D. Ness, DVM

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Regenerative medicine in your practice


Learn about the basics of adding regenerative medicine to your practice.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. October 2015.

Author(s): Sherman O. Canapp Jr., DVM, MS, CCRT, DACVS, DACVSMR



Laser-assisted rehabilitation leads the way


Read about the role laser therapy plays in comprehensive rehabilitation programs.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. November 2015.

Author(s): Jeff Smith, DVM, CCRP

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Therapy lasers can make a life-changing difference


The second “Make a Case with Companion” case contest winners are announced, read the award-winning cases.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. July 2015.

Author(s): Lisa Miller, DVM, CCRT

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Laser therapy for hard-to-treat conditions


Difficult cases illustrate effectiveness against infections caused by fungus-like organisms.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. August 2015.

Author(s): Lisa Miller, DVM, CCRT

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And the laser therapy contest winners are…


Read about the 2013 “Make a Case with Companion Contest” case winners.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. April 2014.

Author(s): Lisa Miller, DVM, CCRT

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Clinicians report laser therapy successes


In this article read two cases about “Bosley” who presented with ulcerative and erosive skin lesions, and “Jazzy” who presented with a degloving injury.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. February 2014.

Author(s): Mary Carter

A multi-center case series on laser therapy


In this article read about a multi-center case report that included 165 cases from 3 sites.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. March 2013.

Author(s): Jason Smith, PhD

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Lasers Light the Way


In this article from Tributaries, the membership magazine of the South Carolina aquarium, read about how laser therapy is helping the turtles at the South Carolina aquarium.


Published: Spring 2013, Vol. 48

Author(s): Tributaries, Membership Magazine of the South Carolina Aquarium

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Therapeutic Photobiomodulation: A Necessary Component of a Veterinary Pain Management Strategy


Understand the biochemical cascade of events that takes place during photobiomodulation therapy.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. September 2012.

Author(s): Ronald J. Riegel, DVM

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Laser Use Enjoys Variety of Clinical Applications


Read about the use of Class IV laser therapy for lick granulomas, acute otitis externa, and fracture healing.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. October 2012.

Author(s): Mary Carter

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Case Study: Wound Healing and Vestibular Disease


Read cases that highlight the laser’s role in treating open wounds and acute vestibular disease.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. November 2012.

Author(s): Mary Carter



Case Study: Laser Therapy Helps Avert Amputation


Injury was caused by a tissue strangulation rope injury to the right rear leg.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. May 2012.

Author(s): Terri Rosado, DVM, CVA, CCRT

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Confessions of a Therapy Laser Neophyte


Read about the unique challenges of treating exotic animals – and the unique solution that laser therapy offers.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. March 2012.

Author(s): Donald W. Stremme, VMD

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Laser Therapy in a One-Doctor Practice


Dr. Bailey discusses his experience with Class III and Class IV therapy lasers and the clinical role of laser therapy in practice.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. June 2012.

Author(s): Keith A. Bailey, DVM

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Laser Therapy in Equine Practice


Learn about the evolution of therapeutic lasers, how to achieve a clinical effect with laser therapy, and how to achieve ROI.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. January 2012.

Author(s): Ronald J. Riegel, DVM

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Laser Therapy in a Rehabilitation Clinic


Read about the financial benefits of laser therapy and its role in a rehabilitation clinic.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. February 2012.

Author(s): Cindy A. Grant, DVM, CCRP

Injured Donkey Responds to Laser Therapy


Donkey recovers from pelvic fractures with laser therapy.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. August 2012.

Author(s): Jean Heaton Lovell

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Warming to the Role


Therapy laser technicians find a wealth of rewards administering laser therapy.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. April 2012.

Author(s): Dennis Arp

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Laser Therapy Helps Heal Victim’s Burns


In this case study read about how Ember, a dog who sustained extensive burns to her body when she was trapped in her crate in a burning house, recovered with laser therapy.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. May 2011.

Author(s): Dennis Arp

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Class IV Laser Therapy – the Hot Technology of 2011


Veterinary medicine is buzzing about the success of Class IV therapy lasers. Over 3,000 practices report clinical and economic success with a technology that was unheard of five years ago.


Published: Integrative Veterinary Care. 2011.

Author(s): John C. Godbold, Jr., DVM

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Laser Promotes Faster Healing, Less Scarring


See how laser therapy helped Benji, a 5-year-old Pomeranian who was attacked by a dog.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. January 2011.

Author(s): Lynn M. Tiffany

Applications of Therapeutic Laser in Everyday Practice


Advancements in technology provide practices with the versatility of laser therapy, which can relieve pain, reduce inflammation and increase microcirculation in tissues.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. August 2011.

Author(s): Ronald J. Riegel, DVM

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A Case Study: Putting Shine on Titan’s Golden Years


Read about how laser therapy helped 12-year-old Titan who was suffering from pain and inflammation in his aging joints and infected anal sacs.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. September 2010.

Author(s): Dennis Arp

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A Case Study: Speedier Recovery After ACL Surgery


Laser therapy helps accelerate recovery after ACL surgery for 2-year-old boxer, Diamond.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. July 2010.

Author(s): Dennis Arp

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A Case Study: Therapeutic Laser Fights Acute Otitis


Case Study: see how laser therapy effectively treated otitis in a Jack Russell terrier.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. January 2010.

Author(s): Dennis Arp

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Spreading the Warmth


Veterinary technicians welcome responsibility of administering Class IV laser therapy.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. September 2009.

Author(s): Dennis Arp

Uses of Therapeutic Laser Expand


Read about how Dr. Robin Downing utilizes therapeutic laser in her clinic for a wide range of conditions.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. March 2009.

Author(s): Dennis Arp

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Understanding Science of Laser Therapy


Ronald Riegel, DVM, has long worked to educate colleagues and dispel myths about laser technology, taking on culprits that include as icon of popular culture.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. July 2009.

Author(s): Dennis Arp

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Practice Profiles: Deep-Tissue Laser Therapy


This profit center empowers you to provide advanced care and market your practice as a state-of-the-art facility.


Published: DVM 360. August 2008.

Author(s): Michelle O'Neal

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Integrating a Class IV Laser into Practice


In this article learn about integrating a Class IV laser into practice, and the therapeutic benefits of laser therapy for patients.


Published: Veterinary Practice News. May 2008.

Author(s): Jessica Tremayne

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The Science of Photobiomodulation Therapy: An In-Depth Analysis


Learn from an industry leader how light is transported through tissue, the cellular reactions that happen during therapy, and how to get light to target tissues whether they are superficial or deep. Visual models are provided to help teach these complex biological interactions.


Author(s): Luis De Taboada, MSEE

The Benefits of On-Contact Laser Therapy


In this webinar learn about what on-contact laser therapy is, how to do it, and the clinical benefits.


Author(s): Wendy S. Frydrych, PhD & Perry Nickelston, DC, FMS, SFMA

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Laser Therapy Research Update


In this webinar learn about the latest research in laser therapy.


Author(s): Brian Pryor, PhD

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Introduction to Laser Therapy & Treating Common Conditions


In this webinar learn how laser therapy works, clinical applications and the basics of dosing and delivery.


Author(s): Perry Nickelston, DC, FMS, SFMA

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Dosing 101: What Does It All Mean?


In this webinar learn about the basics of laser-tissue interactions and the key components of calculating dose.


Author(s): Wendy S. Frydrych, PhD

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Dosing 201: Adjusting Treatment for Acuity


In this webinar learn about adjusting treatments based on acuity, the webinar includes case examples.


Author(s): Perry Nickelston, DC, FMS, SFMA



Techniques 101: Delivery Technique Tips for Success


In this webinar learn about the basics of dosing, and treatment techniques for success.


Author(s): Andrew Wood

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Techniques 201: Maximizing Results with Contact Delivery


In this webinar learn about then benefits, applications, and when to apply laser therapy treatments in contact with tissue.


Author(s): Perry Nickelston, DC, FMS, SFMA

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Photobiomodulation: Laser Therapy for the Nervous System


The use of “low level” light applications, termed photobiomodulation (PBM), as a noninvasive, neuro-restorative therapy has potential to revolutionize repair of the injured nervous system. Experiments on the use of PBM to repair injured spinal cords and peripheral nerves will be discussed, along with the scientific basis for this improvement.

Light applied transcutaneously penetrates to the [...]


Published: February 19, 2015, Photonics Media,

Author(s): Dr. Juanita J. Anders

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Treating Tendon Injury with a Laser


In this webinar Dr. Steve Tumilty from the University of Otago discusses treating tendon injuries with a therapy laser. New research has convinced him that less exercise combined with laser therapy treatment offers an exciting and effective alternative to traditional rehabilitation.


Published: From Our Changing World, 9:20 pm on 23 April 2015

Author(s): Dr. Steve Tumilty

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Class IV Laser Therapy Interventional and case reports confirm positive therapeutic outcomes in multiple clinical indications


Abstract: Tissue that is damaged and poorly oxygenated as a result of swelling, trauma or inflammation has been shown to have a positive response to laser therapy irradiation. Deep penetrating photons activate a biochemical cascade of events leading to rapid cellular regeneration, normalization and healing.


Author(s): Brian Pryor, PhD



Chambersburg Animal Hospital, Osteoarthritis, Labrador Retriever


Chronic history of R forelimb lameness and difficulty “getting up and down” but owner presented dog for acute L forelimb lameness


Author(s): Chambersburg Animal Hospital, Chambersburg, PA

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North Country Vet Clinic, Paresis, Quarter Horse


Found down in pasture, unable to get up on 9/15, unknown duration or cause of paresis, owners were able to get horse up, but was still paretic and had several pressure sores from being down.


Author(s): North Country Vet Clinic, Eagar, AZ

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Severe Bursitis and Osteoarthritis, American Quarter Horse Gelding


Severe bursitis and osteoarthritis of the elbow


Author(s): Lisa Miller, DVM, CCRT

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Crossroads Animal Referral and Emergency, Post-Surgical Recovery, Miniature Dachshund


Chronic intermittent bilateral hind limb lameness of 1 year duration. Diagnosed with bilateral grade III medial patellar luxation, partial CCL tear on left rear leg as well.


Author(s): Crossroads Animal Referral and Emergency, Frederick, MD

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Thonglor Pet Hospital, Severe Trauma, Multiple Fractures, Feline


Presented with severe trauma after falling out of 8th story window.


Author(s): Thonglor Pet Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand

Baring Boulevard Animal Hospital, Tendon Contracture and Lymphatic Obstruction, Great Pyrenees


Dog missing in NV for 4 days, was found with right front foot caught in steel leg trap.


Author(s): Baring Boulevard Animal Hospital, Reno, NV

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Baton Rouge Veterinary Specialists, Chronic Scar Tissue & Lymphatic Obstruction, Labrador Retriever


6 month history of 3-legged lameness with any activity. Failure of medical therapy; presented to surgeon for amputation.


Author(s): Baton Rouge Veterinary Specialists, Baton Rouge, LA

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Maumee Valley Veterinary Clinic, IVDD & Rear Limb Paresis, Lhasa Apso


Owners presented patient to a veterinarian after the dog was reluctant to climb stairs. On physical exam, the patient was painful in T-L spine and had motor ability in rear legs but was weak (paretic). Survey spinal radiographs showed narrowed IV disc space at T13-L1 and multiple calcified discs in lumbar spine (evidence of IVDD).


Author(s): Maumee Valley Veterinary Clinic, Woodburn, IN

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VetMed Animal Clinic, Severe Spondylosis & Osteoarthritis, Pug


History of CHF, epilepsy (on chronic phenobarbital), urinary tract infection (from laying in urine), osteoarthritis. Patient’s chronic UTI’s were from immobility, urine scald, and chronic medications precluded the use of certain pharmacologics for osteoarthritis pain. Spinal/Pelvic radiographs revealed severe spondylosis and osteoarthritis of both hips.


Author(s): VetMed Animal Clinic, Covington, GA

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Maumee Valley Veterinary Clinic, Osteoarthritis, German Shepherd


Patient presented with posture that was very poor, maintaining a half crouch most of the time. The left stifle revealed a slight anterior drawer motion. The Cincinnati Orthopedic Disability Index (CODI) was only 47 out of a possible normal score of 100. Radiographs revealed severe bilateral osteoarthritis of the hips and likely partial CCL tear in left rear leg.


Author(s): Maumee Valley Veterinary Clinic, Woodburn, IN

Best Friends Forever, Progressive Non-Painful Paresis, Labrador Retriever


Rowdy, 14 year old, intact male, 80 lb, Chocolate Lab

Progressive hindlimb paralysis, loss of CPs, non-painful suggestive of DM


Author(s): Jerri Smith, DVM

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Woodland Springs Veterinary Hospital, Otitis, Mixed Breed Canine


Left ear very inflamed and the canal was swollen with yellow debris. Visual inspection with otoscope; ear cytology revealed bacterial and yeast otitis


Author(s): Woodland Springs Veterinary Hospital, Ft. Worth, TX

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Advanced Rehabilitation Center for Animals, Michigan State University, Wounds and Colostridal Myositis, Equine


Vaccines and dental 24 hrs prior to presentation. Dx. Clostridial myositis due to infection with Colstridium perfringens.


Author(s): Advanced Rehabilitation Center for Animals, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI

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Mile High Veterinary Hospital, Osteomyelitis, Doberman Pinscher


Case Contest Honorable Mention



Author(s): Mile High Veterinary Hospital, Aurora, CO

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Baring Boulevard Veterinary Hospital, Severe Demodicosis, American Staffordshire Terrier


Case Contest Runner Up Winner

Severe Demodicosis


Author(s): Baring Boulevard Veteinary Hospital, Reno, NV



Best Friends Forever Veterinary Care, Chronic Wounds & Stomatitis, Feline


Case Contest Winner

Stomatitis and wounds


Author(s): BFF Veterinary Care, Minneapolis, MN

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Cedar Pet Clinic, Wound, Mixed Breed Canine


Attacked by large dog; presented 1 week later when wound already necrotic. History of diabetes


Author(s): Cedar Pet Clinic, Lake Elmo, MN

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Spring Hill Vet, Wound, Lop Rabbit


Presented with large necrotic scab on lateral aspect left pinna with purulent discharge


Author(s): Spring Hill Vet, Carpentersville, IL

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Creature Comforts Animal Clinic, Decubital Ulcer, Rough Collie


Found by a good Samaritan in a ditch; tetraparetic with large decubital ulcer on R Hip and R Shoulder


Author(s): Creature Comforts Animal Clinic, Dublin, OH

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Animal Medical Center, Wound, Maltese


Attacked by large dog; penrose drains placed at ER on Day 1


Author(s): Animal Medical Center, Lauderhill, FL

Stanglein Veterinary Clinic, Degloving Injury, Greyhound


Vehicular Trauma, De-gloving Injury


Author(s): Stanglein Veterinary Clinic, Northampton, PA

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Marshall Animal Care Center, Wound, Dachshund


Attacked by large dog; presented to second veterinarian 6 days post-attack after large amount of skin sloughed


Author(s): Marshall Animal Care Center, Marshall, MI

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Earning Elite-Level Status


In this article Richard Collinge, Head of Medical for the Watford Football Club, discusses how laser therapy is giving his athletes the competitive edge to achieve the extra recovery and performance they need to remain competitive in the English Premier League (EPL).  Collinge discusses applications for laser therapy pre-performance and for post-injury recovery.

Published:  Collinge R.  [...]


Published: Collinge R. Earning elite-level status: Watford Football Club's athletes get a leg up thanks to high-power laser therapy. ADVANCE for Physical Therapy & Rehab Medicine. November 2015; 27(10): 6.

Author(s): Richard Collinge, MSC

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From Classroom to Athletic Training Room


In this article John Burns, MS, ATC, LAT outlines how Washburn University is using deep tissue laser therapy both in the classroom and in the athletic training room.  Read about how Washburn is maximizing outcomes with their student athletes, and giving students hands-on experience treating with the therapy laser.

Published:  Burns J. From classroom to athletic [...]


Published: Burns J. From classroom to athletic training: Washburn University students and athletes are big winners with contemporary modality. ADVANCE for Physical Therapy & Rehab Medicine. April 2016; 27(5): 8.

Author(s): John Burns, MS, ATC, LAT

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Laser Focus


What to know about adding photobiomodulation therapy to your practice.


Published: De Taboada LH, Frydrych WS. Laser focus: What to know about adding photobiomodulation therapy to your practice. Chiropractic Economics. October 2015; 61(17): 15.

Author(s): Luis H. De Taboada, MSEE, and Wendy S. Frydrych, PhD

Intrepid Center Enlists Laser Therapy


The National Intrepid Center of Excellence (NICoE) discusses innovative interventions that are allowing servicemembers to return to duty.  In this article the authors discuss the unique patient population and therapeutic programs at the NICoE and the role laser therapy has played as an adjunct in returning servicemembers to function.

Published:  Kodosky P, Pape M. Intrepid Center [...]


Published: Kodosky P, Pape M. Intrepid Center enlists laser therapy: Innovative interventions return injured servicemembers to prior levels of function. ADVANCE for Physical Therapy & Rehab Medicine. November 2015; 25(14): 14.

Author(s): Paula Kodosky, DPT, Lisa Smith, DPT, and Marcy Pape, MPT

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A Flash in the Pan?


Dr. Contino, laser therapy user since 2008, explains why laser therapy has remained a mainstay in his clinic for over 7 years.  In this article he discusses the consistent results that laser therapy delivers, the ability to return patients to activity faster, and his ability to elevate his standard of care.

Published:  Contino M. A flash [...]


Published: Contino M. A flash in the pan? Evaluating the consistency of laser therapy in patient outcomes. ADVANCE for Physical Therapy & Rehab Medicine. April 2015; 26(5): 18.

Author(s): Matt Contino, DPT

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‘Wins’ in outcomes: Athletes at Duke University see competitive advantage with laser therapy


The Athletic Training staff at Duke University discusses their use of therapy lasers in the athletic training room for over 9 years.  Topics covered are the evolution of therapeutic laser devices, elevating the standard of care, the role therapy lasers currently plan in their program, and their goals for expanded use of deep tissue laser [...]


Published: ADVANCE for Physical Therapy & Rehab Medicine. February 2015; 26(3); 16.

Author(s): Kerry Mullenix, PT, SCS, LAT, ATC, Robert 'Hap' Zarzour, MA, LAT, ATC, and Jose Fonseca, MS, LAT, ATC

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Comparison of light penetration of continuous wave 810 nm and superpulsed 904 nm wavelength light in anesthetized rats


This study examines the 2012 publication by Joensen et al. Transmission through an anesthetized rat skin flap with a continuous wave 810 nm laser and a superpulsed 904 nm laser. The authors conclude that penetration through tissue of 810 nm wavelength light is greater than that of superpulsed 904 nm light. They suggest that the [...]


Published: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. 2016; 34(9): 418-424. doi: 10.1089/pho.2016.4137

Author(s): Juanita J. Anders, PhD, and Xingjia Wu, BS

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‘This is different’ –Powerful laser therapy is a game-changer for LSU Tigers


LSU athletic trainers discuss the impact of Class IV laser therapy as a powerful healing modality for their players.  This article outlines the advantages of the higher powered devices, on-contact delivery techniques, and the importance of educational support for successful implementation.

Published:  ADVANCE for Physical Therapy & Rehab Medicine. September 2015; 26(11): 20.


Published: ADVANCE for Physical Therapy & Rehab Medicine. September 2015; 26(11): 20.

Author(s): Jack Marucci, MA, ATC, LAT, and Andy Barker, MS, ATC, LAT



Movement in the right direction


Gray Cook, MSPT, OCS, CSCS, RKC discusses how to use deep tissue laser therapy to get clinical results.  In this article learn about how to use laser therapy as a precision tool, and how to maximize results using the 3 R’s – Reset, Reinforce, Reload.

Click Here to Listen to a Podcast Where Gray Further Discusses [...]


Published: ADVANCE for Physical Therapy & Rehab Medicine. June 2015. 16(8): 14.

Author(s): Gray Cook, MSPT, OCS, CSCS, RKC

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Shining examples: Three case studies shed light on the widespread benefits of laser therapy


Dr. Burnely discusses three case studies that highlight the benefits of laser therapy, as well as general treatment considerations and adjunct uses for deep tissue laser therapy.  In this article he specifically highlights the use of laser therapy for a a soccer player’s high ankle sprain, a 68-year-old patient with severe shingles, and a patient [...]


Published: Chiro Economics. July 13, 2015. 61(11): 17.

Author(s): Cary Burnley, DC

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A modality with momentum: Laser therapy brings power to the Major League Baseball lineup


Read about why modality skeptic, Steve Smith, PT, DPT, SCS, CSCS, decided to adopt deep tissue laser therapy into the Dodgers athletic training room and how the modality has become a key treatment component.  Steve discusses the impact laser therapy has on player recovery times and his approach to evidence-based medicine.

Published:  Advance for Physical Therapy [...]


Published: Advance for Physical Therapy & Rehab Medicine. June 2014; 25(11): 21.

Author(s): Steve Smith, PT, DPT, SCS, CSCS

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Teaming up with laser therapy


The University of Texas discusses how laser therapy is being used throughout their athletic training program, and specifically in football and track and field.  Read about how the University of Texas got “buy-in” from their medical teams and athletes, and why laser therapy had the “staying power” to become a standard in their treatments.

Published: Advance [...]


Published: Advance for Physical Therapy & Rehab Medicine.November 2014; 25(17): 6.

Author(s): Allen Hardin, ATC, PT, MS, SCS, CSCS; Anthony Pass, ATC, LAT, CSCS, PES, CES; and LaGwyn Durden, MS, ATC, LAT

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Making practice a pleasure


Dr. Kaufman discusses how combining deep-tissue laser therapy and traditional chiropractic methods helped him put positive energy into his patients and his practice.


Published: Chiro Economics, Oct. 26, 2012. 58(17): 20.

Author(s): Amanda Hoffmeyer

Photobiomodulation of the dorsal root ganglion for the treatment of low back pain: a pilot study


Pilot study to investigate treatments for chronic low back pain with three treatment groups: lidocaine injection, radiofrequency treatment and percutaneous photobiomodulation.


Published: Lasers Surg. Med. 2016; 48: 653-659. doi: 10.1002/lsm.22522

Author(s): Holanda VM, Chavantes MC, Silva DFT, de Holanda CVM, De Oliveira Jr. JO, Wu X, Anders JJ

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Photobiomodulation in wound healing: What are we not considering?


Editorial that states that PBM works for wound healing, however PBM is not recommended by wound healing societies. The authors call for more practical application of PBM and more rigorous clinical trials.


Published: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. 2016; 34(2): 51-52.

Author(s): França CM, Anders JJ, Lanzaframe RJ

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Positive effects of low level laser therapy on Bouchard’s and Heberden’s osteoarthritis


Laser therapy on hand osteoarthritis. No placebo control in this study. LLLT was applied to the affected finger joints. LLLT was found to significantly reduce pain and ring size and increase range of motion after 5-7 treatments.


Published: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. 2016; 48(5): 498-504. doi: 10.1002/lsm.22480.

Author(s): Baltzer AWA, Ostapczuk MS, Stosch D

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Effectiveness of passive physical modalities for shoulder pain: systematic review by the Ontario Protocol for Traffic Injury Management Collaboration


This report is a systematic review of published studies on the effectiveness of passive physical modalities on soft tissue injuries of the shoulder.


Published: Physical Therapy. 2016; 95(3): 306-318. doi: 10.2522/ptj.20140361.

Author(s): Yu H, Côté P, Shearer HM, Wong JJ, Sutton DA, Randhawa KA, Varatharajan S, Southerst D, Mior SA, Ameis A, Stupar M, Nordin M, van der Velde GM, Carroll L, Jacobs CL, Taylor-Vaisey AL, Abdulla S, Shergill Y

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Near-infrared light therapy to attenuate strength loss after strenuous resistance exercise


Double-blind, sham controlled, crossover study to evaluate the effect of near-infrared (NIR) light on strength and recovery of healthy individuals during exercise. NIR laser (800 nm + 970 nm) was applied to the biceps brachii muscle prior to an elbow-flexion resistance-exercise protocol.


Published: Journal of Athletic Training. 2015; 50(1): 45-50. doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-49.3.82

Author(s): Larkin-Kaiser KA, Christou E, Tillman M, George S, Borsa PA



Can intractable discogenic back pain be managed by low-level laser therapy without recourse to operative intervention?


Report on the long-term (5-year) prospective follow-up of 50 unselected patients with discogenic back pain confirmed by MRI.


Published: Journal of Pain Research. 2015; 8: 253-256.

Author(s): Ip D, Fu N-Y

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The use of low level laser therapy (LLLT) for musculoskeletal pain


Review paper that gives an overview of low level laser therapy or photobiomodulation therapy including history and mechanisms.


Published: MOJ Orthopedics & Rheumatology. 2(5): 00068. doi: 10.15406/mojor.2015.02.00068

Author(s): Cotler HB, Chow RT, Hamblin MR, Carroll J

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Low-level light/laser therapy versus photobiomodulation therapy


Editorial on the use of the term “photobiomodulation therapy” and its acceptance as a MeSH search term.


Published: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. 2015; 33(4): 183-184. doi: 10.1089/pho.2015.9848

Author(s): Anders JJ, Lanzafame RJ, Arany PR

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Efficacy of high and low level laser therapy in the treatment of Bell’s palsy: A randomized double blind placebo-controlled trial


Patients with Bell’s palsy. Three treatment groups; all groups received facial massage and facial expression exercises. HILT was Nd:YAG pulsed, total enegy 80 J, 10 J/cm2 LLLT with 830 nm 100 mW, 10 J/cm2, total dose 80 J.


Published: Lasers in Medical Science. 2014; 29(1): 335-342.

Author(s): Alayat MSM, Elsodany AM, Fiky AARE

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Pre-conditioning with low-level laser (light) therapy: light before the storm


Review article on using LLLT (or photobiomodulation therapy) for preconditioning.


Published: Dose-Response. 2014; 12: 619-649. doi: 10.2203/dose-response.14-032.Agrawal

Author(s): Agrawal T, Gupta GK, Rai V, Carroll JD



Effectiveness of physiotherapy and GaAlAs laser in the management of temporomandibular joint disorders


Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a treatment method commonly used in physiotherapy for musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study was to monitor the function of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and surrounding tissues and compare the objective measurements of the effect of LLLT.


Published: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. 2012; 30(5): 275–280. doi: 10.1089/pho.2011.3171

Author(s): Dostalová T, Hlinakov Pa, Kasparova M, Rehacek A, Vavrickova L, Navrátil L

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Laser photobiomodulation of gene expression and release of growth factors and cytokines from cells in culture: a review of human and animal studies


The aim of this paper was to review experimental studies of laser irradiation of human and animal cells in culture to assess the photobiomodulatory effects of such irradiation on gene expression and release of growth factors and CYTOKINES.


Published: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. 2011; 29(5): 285-304. doi: 10.1089/pho.2010.2846

Author(s): Peplow PV, Chung T-Y, Ryan B, Baxter GD

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Short-term effects of high-intensity laser therapy versus ultrasound therapy in the treatment of low back pain: a randomized controlled trial


30 consecutive patients with clinically verified sub-acute or chronic low back pain were randomized to receive 15 treatments (5 days a week for 3 weeks) of either ultrasound or laser therapy.


Published: Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2011; 47(3): 367-373.

Author(s): Fiore P, Panza F, Cassatella G, Russo A, Frisardi V, Solfrizzi V, Ranieri M, di Teo L, Santamato A

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Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in the management of neck pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo or active-treatment controlled trials


Review of laser therapy for neck pain published in a top-tier medical journal.


Published: The Lancet. 2009; 374(9705): 1897–1908. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61522-1

Author(s): Chow RT, Johnson MI, Lopes-Martins AB, Bjordal JM

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Ga-As (808 nm) laser irradiation enhances ATP production in human neuronal cells in culture


The authors conclude that laser application to NHNP cells significantly increases ATP production which may explain the beneficial effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in stroked rats.


Published: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. 2007; 25(3): 180-182. doi: 10.1089/pho.2007.2064

Author(s): Oron U, Ilic S. de Taboada L, Streeter J

Mechanisms of low level light therapy


This review paper covers the current theory on basic mechanisms of laser therapy.


Published: Proc. of SPIE Photonics. 2006; 6140: 614001-01-12. doi: 10.1117/12.646294

Author(s): Hamblin MR, Demidova TN

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Low-level laser therapy in acute pain: A systematic review of possible mechanisms of action and clinical effects in randomized placebo-controlled trials


Review the biological and clinical short-term effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in acute pain from soft-tissue injury.


Published: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. 2006; 24(2): 158-168.

Author(s): Bjordal JM, Johnson MI, IversenV, Aimbire F, Lopes-Martins RAB

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Phototherapy promotes regeneration and functional recovery of injured peripheral nerve


This review presents several studies that evaluate the efficacy of laser therapy to promote regeneration and recovery of injured peripheral nerve.


Published: Neurological Research. 2004; 26(2): 233-239. doi: 10.1179/016164104225013914

Author(s): Anders JJ, Geuna S, Rochkind S

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Photobiomodulation and eccentric exercise for Achilles tendinopathy: a randomized controlled trial


This is the first study to investigate the effectiveness of a regime of fewer exercise sessions combined with photobiomodulation for the treatment of Achilles tendinopathy.


Published: Lasers Med Sci. 2016. 31(1): 127-135. doi: 10.1007/s10103-015-1840-4

Author(s): Tumilty S, Mani R, Baxter GD

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The effectiveness of therapeutic class IV (10W) laser treatment for epicondylitis


Here we evaluate a dual wavelength (980/810 nm) class IV laser with a power output of 10 W for the purpose of determining the efficacy of class IV laser therapy in alleviating the pain and dysfunction associated with chronic epicondylitis.


Published: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. 2013; 45(5): 311-317. doi: 10.1002/lsm.22140

Author(s): Roberts DB, Kruse RJ, Stoll SF



Advances in laser therapy for the treatment of work related injuries


Book chapter on the advances in laser therapy as a therapeutic modality.


Published: Current Perpectives in Clinical Treatment and Management in Workers' Compensation Cases. 2011: 191-201.

Author(s): Pryor BA

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Effects of class IV laser therapy on fibromyalgia impact and function in women with fibromyalgia


This study evaluated the effects of Class IV laser therapy on pain, Fibromyalgia (FM) impact, and physical function in women diagnosed with FM.


Published: The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2013; 19(5): 445-452. doi: 10.1089/acm.2011.0398

Author(s): Panton L, Simonavice E, Williams K, Majock C, Kim J-S, Kingsley JD, McMillan V, Mathis R

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Effect of near-infrared light exposure on mitochondrial signaling in C2C12 muscle cells.


Our data indicates that NIR light alters mitochondrial biogenesis signaling and may represent a mechanistic link to the clinical benefits.


Published: Mitochondrion. 2014; 14: 42-48. doi: 10.1016/j.mito.2013.11.001

Author(s): Nguyen LM-D, Malamo AG, Larkin-Kaiser KA, Borsa PA, Adhihetty PJ

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Gait recovery in a girl with ischemic spinal cord stroke


Case Report–Girl with spinal cord stroke LiteCure laser was used as part of successful multimodal physical therapy approach to help restore gait.


Published: Pediatric Physical Therapy. 2015; 27(2): 190–199. doi: 10.1097/PEP.0000000000000135

Author(s): McCain KJ, Farrar M, Smith, PS

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A pilot study to determine the efficacy of therapeutic class IV laser treatment on local muscle spasm associated with myofascial pain syndrome in patients with neck pain


Pilot study consisting of ten patients with at least one month of myofascial pain. Patients underwent two weeks of class IV laser treatment.


Published: AAPM Presentation abstract. Fort Lauderdale, FL; April 2013.

Author(s): Lee E, Dubois M, Calvino S, Malayil R Kim E, Shrikhande AA



Assessment of feasibility and efficacy of Class IV laser therapy for postoperative pain relief in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery patients: A pilot study


This pilot study was designed to assess the feasibility and efficacy of Class IV laser on postoperative pain relief following off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (OPCABG) surgery, as a component of multimodal analgesia (MMA) technique.


Published: Ann Card Anaesth. 2015; 18: 317-22. doi: 10.4103/0971-9784.159800

Author(s): Karlekar A, Bharati S, Saxena R, Mehta K

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Successful management of acute-onset tortilocollis in a giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata)


This case highlights the potential benefits of combining traditional medical management with chiropractic treatment and physical therapy techniques for management of severe acute-onset torticollis in a giraffe.


Published: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 2013; 44(1): 181-185. doi: 10.1638/1042-7260-44.1.181

Author(s): Dadone LL, Haussler KK, Brown G, Marsden M, Gaynor J, Johnston MS, Garelle D

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Long-term effect of high-intensity laser therapy in the treatment of patients with chronic low back pain: a randomized blinded placebo-controllled trial


The aim of this study was to compare the effect of high-intensity laser therapy (HILT), alone or combined with exercise, in the treatment of chronic low back pain (CLBP).


Published: Lasers Med Sci. 2014; 29: 1065-1073. doi: 10.1007/s10103-013-1472-5

Author(s): Alayat MSM, Atya AM, Ali MME, Shosha TM

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In vitro and in vivo optimization of infrared laser treatment for injured peripheral nerves


The objective of this study was to demonstrate that for a selected wavelength effective in vitro dosing parameters could be translated to effective in vivo parameters.


Published: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. 2014; 46(1): 34-45. doi: 10.1002/lsm.22212

Author(s): Anders JJ, Moges H, Wu X, Erbele ID, Alberico SL, Saidu EK, Smith JT, Pryor BA


Scientific Papers regarding Regenerative Medicine


Tendon Injuries

•   Ahmad Z, et al. Exploring the application of stem cells in tendon repair and regeneration. (2012) Arthroscopy. 28(7):1018-29.

•   Chen L, et al. Synergy of tendon stem cells and platelet-rich plasma in tendon healing. (2012) Journal of Orthopedic Research. 30(6): 991-7.

•   De Almeida AM, et al. Patellar tendon healing with platelet-rich plasma: a prospective randomized controlled trial. (2012) American Journal Sports Medicine. 40(6):1282-8.

•   Finnoff et al. Treatment of chronic tendinopathy with ultrasound-guided needle tenotomy and platelet-rich plasma injection. (2011) PM&R. 3(10):900-11.

•   Mont RR, et al. Platelet rich plasma treatment for chronic Achilles tendinosis. (2012) Foot Ankle International. 33(5):379-85.

•   Nixon AJ. Cell and gene-based approaches to tendon regeneration. (2012) Journal of Shoulder Elbow Surgery. 21(2):278-94.


•   Ahadi T., et al. Platelet-rich plasma versus hyaluronic acid. (2012) Arthroscopy. 28(11):1585-6

•   Anitua E., et al. A biological therapy to osteoarthritis treatment using platelet-rich plasma. (2013) Expert Opinion Biologic Therapy. 13(8):1161-72.

•    Pourcho AM, et al. Intra articular platelet-rich plasma injections in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: review and recommendations. (2014) American Journal Physiology, Medicine and Rehabilitation. 93(11 Suppl 3):S108-21.

•   Zhu Y, et al. Basic science and clinical application of platelet-rich plasma for cartilage defects and osteoarthritis: a review. (2013) J. Osteoarthritic Cartilage. 21(11):1627-37

Rotator Cuff Injuries

•   Isaac C, et al. Biologic approaches to enhance rotator cuff healing after injury. (2012) Journal of Shoulder Elbow Surgery. 21(2):181-90.

Bone Growth/ Reconstruction

•   Loquercio G, et al. Autologous platelet gel improves bone reconstruction of large defects in patients with bone giant cell tumors. (2015) In Vivo. 29(5): 533-540.

•   Eskan MA, et al. Platelet-rich plasma-assisted guided bone regeneration for ridge augmentation: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. (2014) Journal of Periodontology. 85(5): 661-8.



Soft Tissue

•   Kamoto N, et al. Treating Achilles tendon rupture in rats with bone-marrow transplantation therapy. (2010) Journal Bone Joint Surgery. 92(17): 2776-84

•   Torricetie P, et al. Regenerative medicine for the treatment of musculoskeletal overuse injuries in competition horses. (2011) International Orthopaedics. 35(100): 1569-76.

•   Xie X, et al. The effect of platelet-rich plasma on patterns of gene expression in a dog model of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. (2013) Journal 0f Surgical Research. 190(1):80-8.

Osteoarthritis and Cartilage Defects

•   Franklin SP, et al. Prospective trial of autologous conditioned plasma versus hyaluronan plus corticosteroid for elbow osteoarthritis in dogs. (2013)  Canadian Vet Journal. 54(9): 881-4.

•   Guercio A, et al. Production of canine mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue and application in dogs with chronic osteoarthritis of the humeroredal joints. (2012) Cell Bio International. 36(2):189-94

•   Johnson K, et al. A stem cell based approach to cartilage repair. (2012) Science. 336(6082):717-21.

•   Mokbel A., et al. Homing and efficacy of intra-articular injection of autologous mesenchymal stem cells in experimental chondral defects in dogs. (2011) Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology. 29(2): 275-84.

Neurological Disease

•   Bong Wook Park, et al. Peripheral nerve regeneration using autologous porcine skin-derived mesenchymal stem cells. (2012) Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. 6(2):113-24

•   Dong-In Jung, et al. A comparison of autologous and allogenic bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in canine spinal cord injury. (2009). Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 285(1):67-77.

•   Hak Hyun Ryu, et al. Functional recovery and neural differentiation after transplantation of allogenic adipose-derived stem cells in a canine model of acute spinal cord injury. (2009) Journal of Veterinary Science. 10(4):273-84.

•   Ren Z, et al. Role of stem cells in the regeneration and repair of peripheral nerves. (2012) Reviews in the Neurosciences. 23(2):135-43.

Bone Growth/ Regeneration

•   Cho AR, et al. The incorporation of platelet-rich plasma into calcium phosphate cement enhances bone regeneration in osteoporosis. (2014) Pain Physician. 17(6): E737-45


Additional Papers Published on Regenerative Medicine


Ultrasonographic Findings in 41 Dogs Treated with Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate and Platelet-Rich Plasma for a Supraspinatus Tendinopathy: A Retrospective Study.Free Full-text

Journals: Front Vet Sci. 2018 January; 5(0):98. Renee A McDougall, Sherman O Canapp, Debra A Canapp


Advantages of Pure Platelet-Rich Plasma Compared with Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Plasma in Treating Rabbit Knee Osteoarthritis.

Language: English

Med Sci Monit. April 2016;22(0):1280-90.

Wen-jing Yin 1, Hai-tao Xu 1, Jia-Gen Sheng 1, Zhi-Quan An 1, Shang-Chun Guo 1, Xue-Tao Xie 1, Chang-qing Zhang 1


Single ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma injection for treatment of supraspinatus tendinopathy in dogs.Free Full-text

Journals: Can Vet J. 2015 August; 56(8):845-9. Louisa K Ho, Wendy I Baltzer, Sarah Nemanic et al


Regenerative Medicine for Joint Disease in the Dog

Conference Proceedings : Pacific Veterinary Conference : PacVet 2017. Steven C. Budsberg


Biomechanical study of the effect of platelet rich plasma on the treatment of medial collateral ligament lesion in rabbits.Free Full-text

Journals: Acta Cir Bras. 2017 October; 32(10):827-835. Eduardo Louzada da Costa, Luiz Eduardo Moreira Teixeira, Bruno Jannotti Pádua et al


Regenerative Medicine in Dogs: PRP and Stem Cells

Conference Proceedings : Wild West Veterinary Conference : Wild West Veterinary Conference 2015. Samuel Franklin


Platelet rich plasma: Effective treatment for repairing of spinal cord injury in rat.Free Full-text

Journals: Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc. 2017 May; 51(3):254-257. Reza Salarinia, Hamid-Reza Sadeghnia, Daryoush Hamidi Alamdari et al


. Use of canine sourced platelet-rich plasma in a feline contaminated cutaneous wound.Free Full-text

Journals: Can Vet J. 2017 February; 58(2):141-144. Francesco Gemignani, Anna Perazzi, Ilaria Iacopett


Canine Platelet-Rich Plasma Systems: A Prospective Analysis.Free Full-text

Journals: Front Vet Sci. 2015; 2(0):73. Brittany Jean Carr, Sherman O Canapp, Jr, David R Mason et al


Evaluation of subcutaneous infiltration of autologous platelet-rich plasma on skin-wound healing in dogs.Free Full-text

Journals: Biosci Rep. 2017 April; 37(2). Haithem A Farghali, Naglaa A AbdElKader, Marwa S Khattab et al


. The effect of platelet-rich plasma on Achilles tendon healing in a rabbit model.Free Full-text

Journals: Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc. 2017 January; 51(1):65-72. Masaki Takamura, Toshito Yasuda, Atsushi Nakano et al


The effect of platelet-rich plasma on osseous healing in dogs undergoing high tibial osteotomy.

Language: English

PLoS One. January 2017;12(5):e0177597.

Samuel P Franklin 1, Emily E Burke 2, Shannon P Holmes 2


Optimisation of a double-centrifugation method for preparation of canine platelet-rich plasma.Free Full-text

Journals: BMC Vet Res. 2017 June; 13(1):198. Hyeok-Soo Shin, Heung-Myong Woo, Byung-Jae Kang


The Efficacy of Platelet-Rich Plasma in the Treatment of Rib Fractures.

Language: English

Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. October 2017;65(7):546-550.

Samil Günay 1, Huseyin Candan 2, Rahsan Yilmaz 3, İrfan Eser 1, Umit Aydoğmus 4


Inside-out and standard vein grafts associated with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in sciatic nerve repair. A histomorphometric study.Free Full-text

Journals: Acta Cir Bras. 2017 August; 32(8):617-625. José Sidney Roque, Karina Torres Pomini, Rogerio Leone Buchaim et al


Pooled Platelet-Rich Plasma Lysate Therapy Increases Synoviocyte Proliferation and Hyaluronic Acid Production While Protecting Chondrocytes From Synoviocyte-Derived Inflammatory Mediators.Free Full-text

Journals: Front Vet Sci. 2018 January; 5(0):150. Jessica M Gilbertie, Julie M Long, Alicia G Schubert et al


Three-dimensional structure and cytokine distribution of platelet-rich fibrin.Free Full-text

Journals: Clinics. 2017 February; 72(2):116-124. Meng-Yi Bai, Ching-Wei Wang, Jyun-Yi Wang et al


Effect of platelet-rich plasma on orthodontic tooth movement in dogs.

Journals: Orthod Craniofac Res. 2017 May; 20(2):102-110. A Rashid, F A ElSharaby, E M Nassef et al


Enhancement of abdominal wall defect repair using allogenic platelet-rich plasma with commercial polyester/cotton fabric (Damour) in a canine model.Free Full-text

Journals: J Vet Med Sci. 2017 July; 79(7):1301-1309. Khaled Abouelnasr, Mohamed Hamed, Samah Lashen et al


Intratendon Delivery of Leukocyte-Poor Platelet-Rich Plasma Improves Healing Compared With Leukocyte-Rich Platelet-Rich Plasma in a Rabbit Achilles Tendinopathy Model.

Journals: Am J Sports Med. 2017 July; 45(8):1909-1920. Ruijian Yan, Yanjia Gu, Jisheng Ran et al


Comparison of the Effects of Osteochondral Autograft Transplantation With Platelet-Rich Plasma or Platelet-Rich Fibrin on Osteochondral Defects in a Rabbit Model.

Journals: Am J Sports Med. 2017 December; 45(14):3280-3288. Masahiro Maruyama, Hiroshi Satake, Tomoto Suzuki et al


The Effect of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma on Bone Regeneration by Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells Loaded onto Allogeneic Cancellous Bone Granules.Free Full-text

Journals: Cells Tissues Organs. 2017 January; 203(6):327-338. Min Wook Joo, Seung Jae Chung, Seung Han Shin et al


Platelet-rich plasma injections in acute muscle injury.Free Full-text

Journals: N Engl J Med. 2014 June; 370(26):2546-7. Gustaaf Reurink, Gert Jan Goudswaard, Maarten H Moen et al


Multiple injections of leukoreduced platelet rich plasma reduce pain and functional impairment in a canine model of ACL and meniscal deficiency.

Language: English

J Orthop Res. April 2016;34(4):607-15.

DOI: 10.1002/jor.23054

James L Cook 1, Patrick A Smith 2, Chantelle C Bozynski 1, Keiichi Kuroki 1, Cristi R Cook 1, Aaron M Stoker 1, Ferris M Pfeiffer 1


Influence of Cellular Composition and Exogenous Activation on Growth Factor and Cytokine Concentrations in Canine Platelet-Rich Plasmas.Free Full-text

Journals: Front Vet Sci. 2017 January; 4(0):40. Samuel P Franklin, Kate E Birdwhistell, Alena Strelchik et al


Intervertebral disc regeneration using plateletrich plasmacontaining bone marrowderived mesenchymal stem cells: A preliminary investigation.Free Full-text

Journals: Mol Med Report. 2016 April; 13(4):3475-81. Shan-Zheng Wang, Ji-Yang Jin, Yu-Dong Guo et al


Stem Cell Therapy & Feline Asthma


Margie Scherk, DVM, DABVP (Feline Practice), catsINK, Vancouver, British Columbia



Reference Articles for Shockwave Technology


PDF Articles:

1. Application of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) 

in Equine Orthopaedics 

Ernst Detlef, Corinna Flothow; Eutin-Sibbersdorf

2. The Effect of Extracorporeal Shock Wave

Therapy on Lower Limb Spasticity in

Subacute Stroke Patients

Seung Won Moon, MD1, Jin Hoan Kim, MD1, Mi Jin Jung, MD1, Seungnam Son, MD2, Joong Hoon Lee, MD3,

Heesuk Shin, MD1, Eun Shin Lee, MD1, Chul Ho Yoon, MD1, Min-Kyun Oh, MD1

3. 2014 Clinical application of shock wave therapy (SWT) in musculoskeletal disorders

4. 40349_2016_Article_53 (3)

5. 130101Lubricin_expression

6. 130216Wang_Review

7. ACT - ESWT Mesenchymal Stem Cells

8. ACT - Hind Limb Angiogenesis

9. ACT - In_Vitro_Tenocytes

10. ACT - Nerve Conduction ESWT

11. Clinical Focusing Article

12. dogs with arthritis (2)

13. Effectiveness_of_ESWT_in_Lower_Limb_Tendinopathy_2014_Mani_Babu_et_al_01

14. Equine Desmitis -Studie_Pferdeklinik_Kerken

15. ESWT for supraspinatus and biceps tendinopathies in 29 dogs - Leeman-Canine-shoulder-injuries-and-ESWT-Seattle-Vet-Spec-Vet-Rec-2016

16. ESWT_on_Equine_Tendon_Healing_ISMST

17. ESWT-chronic-Plantar-Faciitis

18. ESWT-Fasciitis-Plantaris-3

19. EWST Rotator cuff

20. Frisbie- ESWT Treatment of OA of Carpal Joints of Horses

21. HC Wang Mechanics Rule Cell Biology

22. JAAHA_2014 - ESWT for Shoulder Lameness in Dogs

23. KentAllen_Backs2010AAEP

24. KIRKBY - Clinicians Brief - Shockwave Therapy as a Treatment Option

25. March - ESWTandwounds_HollisJuly2013

26. McClure-ESWT_ISMST_wound_paper

27. McClureNavicular


29. OP06_SD_2011_2xNeuland_englisch_4c(1)

30. r-eswt

31. SWT VersaTron Patella Ligament

32. Tendon to bone

33. The Effect of Shock Wave Therapy on Patellar Ligament Desmitis after Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy - PatellarLiagmentDesimitisandShockWave

34. Triggerpoints_JShah

35. update on ESWT

36. Wund Studie Saudi Arabien

1. Low-energy extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) improves metaphyseal fracture healing in an osteoporotic rat model.Free Full-text

 Journals: PLoS One. 2017 January; 12(12):e0189356. Gina A Mackert, Matthias Schulte, Christoph Hirche et al

Keywords: Shockwave Therapy | Rats | Sprague-Dawley Rat | Small Mammals | Murinae | Rodents | Journals

2. Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy Enhances Expression of Pdia-3 Which Is a Key Factor of the 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D 3 Rapid Membrane Signaling Pathway in Treatment of Early Osteoarthritis of the Knee.Free Full-text

 Journals: Int J Med Sci. 2017 January; 14(12):1220-1230. Shan-Ling Hsu, Jai-Hong Cheng, Ching-Jen Wang et al

shockwave therapy (ESWT) treatment, which potentially regulated biological function of chondrocytes
Keywords: Shockwave Therapy | Rats | Sprague-Dawley Rat | Small Mammals | Humans | Rodents | Murinae | Journals

3. Non-invasive high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment of the placenta: a preliminary in-vivo study using a simian model.

 Journals: Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2017 November; 50(5):635-641. J Caloone, C Huissoud, A Kocot et al

Keywords: Shockwave Therapy | methods | Haplorrhini | Primates | Journals

4. Assessment of acute thermal damage volumes in muscle using magnetization-prepared 3D T2 -weighted imaging following MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy.

 Journals: J Magn Reson Imaging. 2017 August; 46(2):354-364. Robert M Staruch, Joris Nofiele, Jamie Walker et al

Keywords: Shockwave Therapy | Swine | Food Animals | Journals

5. Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy Increases Growth Factor Release from Equine Platelet-Rich Plasma In Vitro.

 Journals: Front Vet Sci. 2017 January; 4(0):205. Kathryn A Seabaugh, Merrilee Thoresen, Steeve Giguère

shockwave therapy (ESWT) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) are common treatments for soft tissue injuries
Keywords: shockwave therapy; growth factors; lameness; ligament; platelet-rich plasma; regenerative medicine;

6. Increased Effects of Extracorporeal Shock Waves Combined with Gentamicin against Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms In Vitro and In Vivo.

 Journals: Ultrasound Med Biol. 2016 September; 42(9):2245-52. Xin Qi, Yaochao Zhao, Jieyuan Zhang et al

Keywords: Shockwave Therapy | methods | Rats | Sprague-Dawley Rat | Murinae | Rodents | Small Mammals | Journals

7. Is it possible to change of the duration of consolidation period in the distraction osteogenesis with the repetition of extracorporeal shock waves?Free Full-text

 Journals: Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2017 March; 22(2):e251-e257. M-E Onger, C Bereket, I Sener et al

Keywords: Shockwave Therapy | Rabbits | Small Mammals | Lagomorphs | Journals

8. The effect of shock wave therapy on patellar ligament desmitis after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy.

 Journals: Vet Surg. 2012 May; 41(4):482-5. Alissa Gallagher, Alan R Cross, Gustavo Sepulveda

Keywords: Shockwave Therapy | therapeutic use | Evaluation Studies | Dogs | Studies/Research/Trials | Clinical

9. Low-Energy Shockwave Therapy Improves Ischemic Kidney Microcirculation.Free Full-text

 Journals: J Am Soc Nephrol. 2016 December; 27(12):3715-3724. Xin Zhang, James D Krier, Carolina Amador Carrascal et al

shockwave regimen did not cause detectable kidney injury in normal pigs. In conclusion, low-energy shockwave

10. Shockwave therapy as a treatment optionFree Full-text

 Journals: Clinician's Brief. 2013 August; 11(8):51-53. Kristin Kirkby

shockwave therapy may support bone, tendon and ligament healing; osteoarthritis treatment; and healing

11. A review of the cellular and molecular effects of extracorporeal shockwave therapy.Free Full-text

 Journals: Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 2016; 29(2):99-107. Georgina A Chamberlain, G Robert Colborne

shockwave therapy (ESWT) is a novel therapeutic modality and its use in promoting connective tissue

12. Changes of articular cartilage and subchondral bone after extracorporeal shockwave therapy in osteoarthritis of the knee.Free Full-text

 Journals: Int J Med Sci. 2017 January; 14(3):213-223. Ching-Jen Wang, Jai-Hong Cheng, Wen-Yi Chou et al

shockwave therapy (ESWT) in early osteoarthritis (OA). Rat knees under OA model by anterior cruciate

13. Optimising an escalating shockwave amplitude treatment strategy to protect the kidney from injury during shockwave lithotripsy.Free Full-text

 Journals: BJU Int. 2012 December; 110(11 Pt C):E1041-7. Rajash K Handa, James A McAteer, Bret A Connors et al

shockwaves (SWs) soon after the initiation of SW lithotripsy (SWL) is unnecessary for achieving a reduction

14. Shockwave therapy for treatment of a burn injury in a horse

 Journals: Equine Vet Educ. 2010 February; 22(2):67-72. J E Johnson, S R McClure, C C Liskey

shockwave therapy was administered. This horse recovered from a substantial burn injury. Shockwave therapy
Keywords: shockwave; burn injury; wounds

15. Enhanced High-Rate Shockwave Lithotripsy Stone Comminution in an In Vivo Porcine Model Using Acoustic Bubble Coalescence.Free Full-text

 Journals: J Endourol. 2016 December; 30(12):1321-1325. Hedieh Alavi Tamaddoni, William W Roberts, Alexander P Duryea et al

shockwaves (SWs) and potentially induce collateral tissue damage. Previous in vitro work has shown that

16. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy for shoulder lameness in dogs.

 Journals: J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2015 Jan-Feb; 51(1):15-9. Willem Becker, Michael P Kowaleski, Robert J McCarthy et al

shockwave therapy (ESWT). Medical records for 15 dogs with lameness attributable to the shoulder that

17. In Situ Activation of Penile Progenitor Cells With Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy.

 Journals: J Sex Med. 2017 April; 14(4):493-501. Guiting Lin, Amanda B Reed-Maldonado, Bohan Wang et al

Shockwave Therapy. J Sex Med 2017;14:493-501.

18. Laser-Generated Shockwaves as a Treatment to Reduce Bacterial Load and Disrupt Biofilm.

 Journals: IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2017 April; 64(4):882-889. Nathan Craig Francis, William Yao, Warren S Grundfest et al

shockwave (LGS) therapy on biofilm infected tissue. METHODS:To demonstrate proof of concept, Staphylococcus

19. Laser-induced shockwave paired with FRET: a method to study cell signaling.Free Full-text

 Journals: Microsc Res Tech. 2015 March; 78(3):195-9. Veronica Gomez-Godinez, Daryl Preece, Linda Shi et al

shockwaves (LIS) combined with biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is

20. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy and therapeutic exercise for supraspinatus and biceps tendinopathies in 29 dogs.

 Journals: Vet Rec. 2016 October; 179(15):385. J J Leeman, K K Shaw, M B Mison et al

shockwave therapy (ESWT) and therapeutic exercise (TE) are thought to be treatment options for these

21. Shock-wave lithotripsy for renal calculi.

 Journals: N Engl J Med. 2012 October; 367(17):1669; author reply 1669-70. Long-Jiang Zhang


22. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy in osteoporotic osteoarthritis of the knee in rats: an experiment in animals.Free Full-text

 Journals: Arthritis Res Ther. 2014 January; 16(4):R139. Ching-Jen Wang, Chien-Yiu Huang, Shan-Ling Hsu et al

shockwave therapy (ESWT) in osteoporotic (OP) osteoarthritis (OA) of rat knee. METHODS: Fifty-six

23. Shock-wave lithotripsy for renal calculi.

 Journals: N Engl J Med. 2012 July; 367(1):50-7. Margaret S Pearle


24. Combination of low-energy shock-wave therapy and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation to improve the erectile function of diabetic rats.Free Full-text

 Journals: Asian J Androl. 2017 Jan-Feb; 19(1):26-33. Hai-tao Shan, Hai-Bo Zhang, Wen Tao Chen et al

shock-wave therapy (LESWT) have emerged as potential and effective treatment protocols for diabetic

25. Effect of laser generated shockwaves 1 on ex-vivo pigskin.

 Journals: Lasers Surg Med. 2014 October; 46(8):620-7. Vidyunmala Ramaprasad, Artemio Navarro, Shahzad Patel et al

shockwaves (LGS) to delaminate biofilm from infected wound surfaces; however, the safety of such an

26. Epicardial shock-wave therapy improves ventricular function in a porcine model of ischaemic heart disease.

 Journals: J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2016 December; 10(12):1057-1064. Johannes Holfeld, Daniel Zimpfer, Karin Albrecht-Schgoer et al

shock-wave treatment in human coronary artery endothelial cells. Epicardial shock-wave treatment in

27. Comprehensive assessment of shockwave intensity: Transcriptomic biomarker discovery for primary blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury using the mammalian hair follicle.

 Journals: Brain Inj. 2018 January; 32(1):123-134. Jing Zhang, Rosalinda Knight, Yushan Wang et al


28. Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy for Treatment of Superficial Digital Flexor Tendonitis in Racing Thoroughbreds: 8 Clinical Cases

 Journals: Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 2004 September; 17(3):152-155. J Hunter, S R McClure, D. K. Merritt et al

Keywords: shockwave therapy extracorporeal orthopedics EQ ; ; SPECIES = equine; Vertebrates; Mammals; Perissodactyla;

29. Extracorporeal Shock-Wave Therapy for Equine Musculoskeletal Disorders

 Journals: Compend Contin Educ Vet. 2003 January; 25(1):68-70. S R McClure, D. K. Merritt

shock-wave therapy uses high-pressure waves that are focused at a point within tissue. These high-pressure
Keywords: shock-wave therapy EQ ; ; SPECIES = equine; Vertebrates; Mammals; Perissodactyla; Equidae; Horses

30. Extracorporeal shockwave shows regression of osteoarthritis of the knee in rats.

 Journals: J Surg Res. 2011 December; 171(2):601-8. Ching-Jen Wang, Lin-Hsiu Weng, Jih-Yang Ko et al

shockwave technology (ESWT) in osteoarthritis of the knee in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six

31. Endoscopic-assisted electrohydraulic shockwave lithotripsy in standing sedated horses.

 Journals: Vet Surg. 2012 July; 41(5):620-4. Michael Röcken, Anton Fürst, Martin Kummer et al

shockwave lithotripsy for fragmentation of urinary calculi in horses. STUDY DESIGN: Case series.

32. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy shows a number of treatment related chondroprotective effect in osteoarthritis of the knee in rats.Free Full-text

 Journals: BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2013 January; 14(0):44. Ching-Jen Wang, Shan-Ling Hsu, Lin-Hsiu Weng et al

shockwave therapy (ESWT) shows chondroprotective effect in osteoarthritis of the rat knees. However,

33. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy shows site-specific effects in osteoarthritis of the knee in rats.

 Journals: J Surg Res. 2013 August; 183(2):612-9. Ching-Jen Wang, Yi-Chih Sun, Ka-Kit Siu et al

shockwave therapy (ESWT) in osteoarthritis of the knee in rats. METHODS: Sixty SD rats were divided

34. New developments in shockwave technology intended for meat tenderization: Opportunities and challenges. A review.

 Journals: Meat Sci. 2013 December; 95(4):931-9. Tomas Bolumar, Mathias Enneking, Stefan Toepfl et al

shockwaves has showed outstanding improvements by reducing the Warner Bratzler Shear Force by 25% or

35. The effect of extracorporeal shockwaves on cartilage end-plates in rabbits: a preliminary MRI and histopathological study.Free Full-text

 Journals: Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc. 2012 January; 46(6):449-54. Cemil Ertürk, Mehmet Akif Altay, Ilyas Ozardali et al

shockwave therapy (ESWT) at different energy levels in a rabbit model using magnetic resonance imaging

36. Extracorporeal shockwave enhanced regeneration of fibrocartilage in a delayed tendon-bone insertion repair model.

 Journals: J Orthop Res. 2014 April; 32(4):507-14. Dick Ho Kiu Chow, Pui Kit Suen, Le Huang et al

shockwave (ESW) provides mechanical cues and upregulates expression of fibrocartilage-related makers

37. Shockwave therapy: Is there an application to enhance wound healing in horses?

 Journals: Equine Vet Educ. 2010 February; 22(2):73-76. A J Dart, A S Bischofberger


38. VEGF modulates angiogenesis and osteogenesis in shockwave-promoted fracture healing in rabbits.

 Journals: J Surg Res. 2011 November; 171(1):114-9. Ching-Jen Wang, Ko-En Huang, Yi-Chih Sun et al

shockwave therapy. Group II received shockwave therapy, and group III was pretreated with bevacizumab,

39. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy shows time-dependent chondroprotective effects in osteoarthritis of the knee in rats.

 Journals: J Surg Res. 2012 November; 178(1):196-205. Ching-Jen Wang, Yi-Chih Sun, To Wong et al

shockwave therapy (ESWT) has a chondroprotective effect on the initiation and regression of osteoarthritis

40. Effect of electrohydraulic shockwave treatment on tenderness, muscle cathepsin and peptidase activities and microstructure of beef loin steaks from Holstein young bulls.

 Journals: Meat Sci. 2014 December; 98(4):759-65. Tomas Bolumar, Utte Bindrich, Stefan Toepfl et al

shockwave treatment improved tenderness (18% reduction in Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of beef

41. Combination Therapy Using Human Adipose-derived Stem Cells on the Cavernous Nerve and Low-energy Shockwaves on the Corpus Cavernosum in a Rat Model of Post-prostatectomy Erectile Dysfunction.

 Journals: Urology. 2016 February; 88(0):226.e1-9. Seung Hwan Jeon, Kshitiz Raj Shrestha, Richard Y Kim et al

shockwave therapy (SWT) on the corpus cavernosum in a rat model of post-prostatectomy erectile dysfunction.

42. Histopathologic effects of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy on rabbit kidney.

 Journals: Urol Res. 1993 January; 21(1):67-70. G Karalezli, O Göğüş, Y Bedük et al

Keywords: Shockwave Lithotripsy | Lithotripsy | side effects | Kidney | Rabbits | Small Mammals | Lagomorphs

43. Cavitation detection during shock-wave lithotripsy.

 Journals: Ultrasound Med Biol. 2005 September; 31(9):1245-56. Michael R Bailey, Yuri A Pishchalnikov, Oleg A Sapozhnikov et al

shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) with a Dornier HM3 lithotripter. Active detection using echo on B-mode

44. Single application extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is the first choice for patients with pancreatic duct stones.

 Journals: Am J Gastroenterol. 1996 July; 91(7):1388-94. H Ohara, M Hoshino, T Hayakawa et al

Keywords: Shockwave Lithotripsy | Lithotripsy | Evaluation Studies | Humans | Studies/Research/Trials | Clinical

45. Treatment time reduction using tandem shockwaves for lithotripsy: an in vivo study.

 Journals: J Endourol. 2009 August; 23(8):1247-53. Francisco Fernandez, Gilberto Fernández, Achim M Loske

shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) time by increasing the shockwave rate of the lithotripter has been tested

46. High-energy extracorporeal shockwave therapy in a patellar tendon animal model: a vascularization focused study.Free Full-text

 Journals: Clinics. 2011 January; 66(9):1611-4. Fernando Travaglini Penteado, Flávio Faloppa, Guilherme Giusti et al

shockwave therapy on tendon angiogenesis in the patellar tendons of rabbits. We sought to investigate

47. Effects of radial shockwave therapy on the limb function of dogs with hip osteoarthritis

 Journals: Vet Rec. 2007 June; 160(22):762-5. M Mueller, B Bockstahler, M Skalicky et al

shockwaves can be focused or radial - focused shockwaves have greatest effect in deeper tissues

48. Effects of extracorporeal shockwave therapy on nanostructural and biomechanical responses in the collagenase-induced Achilles tendinitis animal model.

 Journals: Lasers Med Sci. 2012 November; 27(6):1195-204. Seung Don Yoo, Samjin Choi, Gi-Ja Lee et al

shockwave therapy (ESWT) on the nanostructure and adhesion force of collagen fibrils in a rat model

49. [Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. Past, present and future].

 Journals: Urologe A. 2006 September; 45 Suppl 4(0):189-94. C Chaussy, T Bergsdorf, S Thüroff


50. Potential for cavitation-mediated tissue damage in shockwave lithotripsy

 Journals: J Endourol. 2008 January; 22(1):121-6. Brian R Matlaga, James A McAteer, Bret A Connors et al

Shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) injures renal tissue, and cavitation has been reported to mediate some of

51. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for supraspinatus calcifying tendinopathy in two dogs.

 Journals: Vet Rec. 2003 February; 152(7):208-9. N A Danova, P Muir

Keywords: Shockwave Therapy | Dogs

52. Update on technological and selection factors influencing shockwave lithotripsy of renal stones in adults and children.

 Journals: Curr Opin Urol. 2011 March; 21(2):134-40. Janice A Santos Cortes, Piruz Motamedinia, Mantu Gupta

shockwave lithotripsy success. SUMMARY: Shockwave lithotripsy continues to evolve with the advent

53. The use of radial extracorporeal shockwave therapy in the treatment of urethral urolithiasis in the horse: a preliminary study.Free Full-text

 Journals: J Vet Intern Med. 2008 Nov-Dec; 22(6):1449-51. D Verwilghen, J Ponthier, G van Galen et al

shockwave therapy (ESWT) is widely used in equine practice for the treatment of orthopedic problems.

54. Shockwave exerts osteogenic effect on osteoporotic bone in an ovariectomized goat model.

 Journals: Ultrasound Med Biol. 2009 July; 35(7):1109-18. Kam Fai Tam, Wing-Hoi Cheung, Kwong Man Lee et al


55. Osteogenesis induced by extracorporeal shockwave in treatment of delayed osteotendinous junction healing.

 Journals: J Orthop Res. 2010 January; 28(1):70-6. Ling Qin, Lin Wang, Margaret Wan-Nar Wong et al

shockwave (ESW) in treatment of a delayed OTJ healing. Twenty-eight rabbits were used for establishing

56. Laser-induced shockwave chromatography: a separation and analysis method for nanometer-sized particles and molecules.

 Journals: Anal Chem. 2011 April; 83(7):2416-9. Tetsuhiko Nagahara, Nobuyuki Ichinose, Shinpei Nakamura

shockwave in a water-filled capillary. As the shockwave passed through the mixture of molecules/particles

57. Treatment of chronic proximal suspensory desmitis in horses using focused electrohydraulic shockwave therapy.Free Full-text

 Journals: Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 2006 October; 148(10):561-8. C J Lischer, S K Ringer, M Schnewlin et al

Shockwave Treatment (ESWT). Fifty-two horses with chronic PSD in the forelimb (34 cases) or hindlimb

58. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy for treatment of delayed tendon-bone insertion healing in a rabbit model: a dose-response study.

 Journals: Am J Sports Med. 2012 December; 40(12):2862-71. Dick Ho Kiu Chow, Pui Kit Suen, Lai Hong Fu et al

shockwave (ESW) is effective for treating nonunion fracture, whereas low-dose ESW is used for tendinopathy

59. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy in a dog with chronic bicipital tenosynovitis.Free Full-text

 Journals: Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 2004 March; 146(3):136-41. C Venzin, S Ohlerth, D Koch et al

shockwave therapy and substantial clinical improvement was observed. On follow-up examinations, only

60. Extracorporeal shock-wave therapy reduces progression of knee osteoarthritis in rabbits by reducing nitric oxide level and chondrocyte apoptosis.

 Journals: Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2012 November; 132(11):1547-53. Zhe Zhao, Huiru Ji, Rufang Jing et al

shock-wave therapy (ESWT) has been found to improve motor dysfunction and ameliorate pain with OA in

61. Biological effects of extracorporeal shockwave in bone healing: a study in rabbits.

 Journals: Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2008 August; 128(8):879-84. Ching-Jen Wang, Feng-Sheng Wang, Kuender D Yang

shockwave treatment (ESWT) on bone healing in a rabbit model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen 12-month-

62. Out-of-focus low pressure pulse pretreatment to the whole kidney to reduce renal injury during shockwave lithotripsy: an in vivo study using a rabbit model.

 Journals: J Endourol. 2013 June; 27(6):774-82. Francisco Fernandez, Alejandra Domínguez, Eduardo Castaño et al

shockwaves generated at the minimum energy setting of an HM3 lithotripter reduces renal damage in pigs

63. The effect of fat, muscle, and kidney on stone fragmentation by shockwave lithotripsy: an in vitro study.

 Journals: J Endourol. 2010 February; 24(2):289-92. Fayez T Hammad, Ashraf Al Najjar

shockwave lithotripsy. SSD is composed of different tissues, including the subcutaneous fat, abdominal

64. In-Vivo relation between CT attenuation value and shockwave fragmentation.

 Journals: J Endourol. 2007 March; 21(3):343-6. Fernando Hurtado, Jorge Gutierrez, Eduardo Castaño-Tostado et al

shockwaves (21 kV) using an electrohydraulic lithotripter. Bilateral nephrectomy was performed after

65. The evaluation of extracorporeal shockwave therapy in naturally occurring osteoarthritis of the stifle joint in dogs.Free Full-text

 Journals: Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 2005; 18(3):147-52. J. Dahlberg, G. Fitch, R B Evans et al

shockwave therapy (ESWT) has expanded from the original uses of human urinary calculi treatment to veterinary

66. Safety and effectiveness of extracorporeal shockwave therapy: results of a rabbit model of chronic osteomyelitis.

 Journals: Ultrasound Med Biol. 2009 April; 35(4):595-602. Hans Gollwitzer, Michaela Roessner, Rupert Langer et al

shockwave therapy (ESWT) is applied successfully in various orthopedic disorders. Since shockwaves have

67. Free-electron-laser-induced shock-wave control and mechanistic analysis using pulse control.

 Journals: Appl Opt. 2008 November; 47(31):5862-70. Taizo Kanai, Sachiko Yoshihashi-Suzuki, Kunio Awazu

(shock-wave) effects of the FEL on living tissues. With this system, we have controlled photoinduced

68. Rapid communication: renal apoptosis after shockwave application in rabbit model

 Journals: J Endourol. 2006 December; 20(12):1091-5. Ersin Cimentepe, Muzaffer Eroğlu, Ufuk Oztürk et al

shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) on renal tubular and glomerular cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five

69. Selective loss of unmyelinated nerve fibers after extracorporeal shockwave application to the musculoskeletal system

 Journals: Neuroscience. 2008 July; 155(1):138-44. J Hausdorf, M A M Lemmens, K D W Heck et al

shockwaves (ESW) to the musculoskeletal system may induce long-term analgesia in the treatment of chronic

70. Out-of-focus shockwaves: a new tissue-protecting therapy?

 Journals: Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2004 December; 76(4):159-62. Achim M Loske, Jorge Gutierrez, Eugenio Di Grazia et al


71. Electrohydraulic and extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy.

 Journals: Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 1999 January; 29(1):293-302, xv. L G Adams, D F Senior

shock-wave lithotripsy (EHL) and extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL). With EHL, a shock-wave

72. Prefocal alignment improves stone comminution in shockwave lithotripsy

 Journals: J Endourol. 2002 December; 16(10):709-15. Dahlia L Sokolov, Michael R Bailey, Lawrence A Crum et al

shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) treatments. Cavitation appears to contribute to desired stone comminution

73. Evaluation of shockwave lithotripsy induced renal damage using heat shock protein 70 expression in the presence of different urinary obstruction periods.

 Journals: J Endourol. 2009 July; 23(7):1093-8. Bahattin Ulu, Emre Tüzel, Fatma Aktepe et al

shockwaves (SWs) using heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression on obstructed kidneys with different obstruction

74. Effect of shock-wave therapy on patellar tendinopathy in a rabbit model

 Journals: J Orthop Res. 2004 January; 22(1):221-7. Robert Wen-Wei Hsu, Wei-Hsiu Hsu, Ching-Lung Tai et al

shock-wave therapy (SWT) on collagenase induced tendinopathy in the rabbit patellar tendon. Eighteen

75. Shockwave lithotripsy: dose-related effects on renal structure, hemodynamics, and tubular function

 Journals: J Endourol. 2005 Jan-Feb; 19(1):90-101. Lynn R Willis, Andrew P Evan, Bret A Connors et al

Shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) predictably damages renal tissue and transiently reduces function in both

76. Sonoporation of erythrocytes by lithotripter shockwaves in vitro.

 Journals: Ultrasonics. 1998 August; 36(9):947-52. D L Miller, A R Williams, J E Morris et al

shockwaves. Exposure at 5% or 50% hematocrit in PBS or 50% in plasma yielded not only hemolysis but

77. Evaluation of adrenomedullin levels in renal parenchyma subjected to extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy.

 Journals: Urol Res. 2003 August; 31(4):267-71. Kemal Sarica, Ibrahim Sari, Ayşe Balat et al


78. Lipid peroxidation induced by shockwave lithotripsy

 Journals: J Endourol. 1998 June; 12(3):229-32. T D Cohen, A F Durrani, S A Brown et al

shockwaves (HESW) and the presence of lipid peroxidation produces, juvenile pigs were subjected to shockwave

79. Early effects of extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy exposure on testicular sperm morphology.

 Journals: Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2004; 38(1):38-41. M Murad Basar, M Murat Samli, Mine Erbil et al

shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) applied to the pelvic region on testicular histology and spermatogenesis.

80. Extracorporeal shockwave application to the distal femur of rabbits diminishes the number of neurons immunoreactive for substance P in dorsal root ganglia L5

 Journals: Brain Res. 2008 May; 1207(0):96-101. Jörg Hausdorf, Marijke A M Lemmens, Süleyman Kaplan et al

shockwaves on the production of substance P within dorsal root ganglia in vivo. High-energy shockwaves

81. Evaluation of heat shock protein 70 expression in renal parenchyma subjected to shockwave lithotripsy

 Journals: J Endourol. 2003 November; 17(9):805-8. Kemal Sarica, Ibrahim Sari, Ahmet Erbagci et al

shockwaves (HESW), which have been found to induce transient ischemia during the procedure. MATERIALS

82. Enhancing mechanical strength during early fracture healing via shockwave treatment: an animal study

 Journals: Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2003 July; 18(6):S33-9. Robert Wen-Wei Hsu, Ching-Lung Tai, Chris Yu-Chih Chen et al

shockwave treatment helps fracture healing and (2) whether the effect of shockwave treatment on fracture

83. [Effect of shockwave lithotripsy on the kidney]

 Journals: Ther Umsch. 1988 March; 45(3):192-5. P Jaeger, S Redha, G Uhlschmid et al


84. The effect of shockwaves on mature and healing cortical bone.

 Journals: Int Orthop. 1994 October; 18(5):325-9. F Forriol, L Solchaga, J L Moreno et al

shockwave therapy. We conclude that there is currently little place for shockwave treatment in clinical

85. [Experimental extracorporeal shockwave nephrolithotripsy].

 Journals: Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1988 Jan-Feb; 0(1):38-42. N I Alekseeva, Iu V Andriianov, V A Bashilov et al


86. Renal nerves mediate changes in contralateral renal blood flow after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy.

 Journals: Nephron Physiol. 2003 January; 95(4):p67-75. Bret A Connors, Andrew P Evan, Lynn R Willis et al

shockwaves (SW) (2000 SW, 24 kV, Dornier HM3) to only one kidney. The role of renal nerves in this response

87. Effects of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy at different stages of pregnancy in the rabbit

 Journals: J Endourol. 1997 October; 11(5):323-6. B Gümüş, M Lekili, A R Kandiloglu et al

shockwaves either early or late in the gestational period. Time-matched controls did not receive shockwaves.

88. The isolated perfused kidney: an in vitro test system for evaluation of renal tissue damage induced by high-energy shockwaves sources

 Journals: J Endourol. 2005 September; 19(7):883-8. Th Bergsdorf, S Thüroff, Ch Chaussy

shockwave path or simulation of ventilatory movements.

89. Impaired tensile strength after shock-wave application in an animal model of tendon calcification.

 Journals: Ultrasound Med Biol. 2001 May; 27(5):665-71. M Maier, T Saisu, J Beckmann et al

shock-wave application on tendon calcifications, as well as on tendon ossifications.

90. The effects of extracorporeal shock-wave therapy on the ultrasonographic and histologic appearance of collagenase-induced equine forelimb suspensory ligament desmitis.

 Journals: Ultrasound Med Biol. 2004 April; 30(4):461-7. S R McClure, D Van Sickle, R Evans et al

shock-wave therapy (ESWT) may stimulate healing of desmitis in multiple species. The objective of this

91. [Side effects of extracorporeal shock-wave exposure on the kidney in the dogs].Free Full-text

 Journals: Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi. 1990 March; 81(3):400-7. H Iimori, M Senjyu, T Sugimoto et al

shock-wave (SW) exposure on the kidney were investigated in dogs using a Dornier kidney lithotriptor

92. [Effects of extracorporeal ultrasound shockwaves on the relatively mature embryos of the teleost Oryzias latipes]

 Journals: Ultraschall Med. 1998 April; 19(2):52-8. N Peters, G Dahmen, W Schmidt et al


93. Protective effect of verapamil on renal tissue during shockwave application in rabbit model

 Journals: J Endourol. 1996 August; 10(4):329-33. O Yaman, K Sarica, G Ozer et al


94. Limitation of shockwave-induced enhanced crystal deposition in traumatized tissue by verapamil in rabbit model

 Journals: J Endourol. 1999 June; 13(5):343-7. K Sarica, K Bakir, F Yağci et al

shockwaves (HESW) and new stone formation, as indicated by crystal deposition in the renal parenchyma,

95. [Condition and influence of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy on the surrounding organs]

 Journals: Nippon Rinsho. 1989 December; 47(12):2737-40. K Akimoto, T Mine, E Sato et al


96. Evaluation of basal membrane antibody (immunoglobulin G) formation after high-energy shockwave application in rats

 Journals: J Endourol. 1998 December; 12(6):505-8. K Sarica, K Türkölmez, A Koşar et al

shockwave application. Apart from the well-defined functional and morphologic side effects of shockwave

97. Morphological and functional changes in canine kidneys following extracorporeal shock-wave treatment.

 Journals: Urol Int. 1995 January; 54(1):48-58. P Jaeger, F Redha, K Marquardt et al

shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has rapidly become established worldwide as a routine method for treatment

98. Experimental basis of shockwave-induced renal trauma in the model of the canine kidney.

 Journals: World J Urol. 1993 January; 11(1):43-53. J Rassweiler, K U Köhrmann, W Back et al

shockwave source of the Modulith SL 20 shockwave-induced renal trauma was evaluated by acute and chronic

99. Histomorphologic and ultrastructural findings of shockwave-induced lesions in the isolated perfused kidney of the pig

 Journals: J Endourol. 1994 August; 8(4):257-61. W Back, K U Köhrmann, J Bensemann et al

shockwaves at different doses (2-250 shockwaves; 12-20 kV) on the Modulith SL 20 lithotripter. The dose-

100. Pathophysiologic effects of biliary shockwave lithotripsy in a canine model

 Journals: Am Surg. 1991 January; 57(1):34-8. W C Chapman, K L Parish, A J Kaufman et al

shockwave beam path during treatment

101. In vivo assessment of shock-wave pressures. Implication for biliary lithotripsy.

 Journals: Gastroenterology. 1990 November; 99(5):1467-74. H Vergunst, O T Terpstra, F H Schröder et al

shock-wave lithotripsy, the pressure profile, which is generated by the lithotriptor, determines the

102. Bacteriuria following extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy in patients whose urine was sterile before the procedure.

 Journals: Clin Infect Dis. 1995 May; 20(5):1317-20. G Rahav, H Strul, D Pode et al

shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL). The occurrence of complications was examined in the 126 (30.5%) of these


 Journals: Klin Khir. 1995; 0(3):54-7. G I Gertsen, Se-Fey, R M Ostapchuk et al

shock-wave therapy were studied. In accordance to data of clinical, roentgenological and morphological

104. Soft-tissue effects of biliary extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in swine

 Journals: Br J Radiol. 1989 September; 62(741):843-8. D E Malone, C D BECKER, D Reich et al

shockwave generator and an integrated ultrasonic targeting system. Sixteen swine, evenly divided into

105. Stone recurrence after shockwave lithotripsy: possible enhanced crystal deposition in traumatized tissue in rabbit model

 Journals: J Endourol. 1996 December; 10(6):513-7. K Sarica, T Soygür, O Yaman et al

shockwaves (HESW) on new stone formation as indicated by crystal deposition in the renal parenchyma,

106. Shock-wave lithotripsy of gallbladder stones. The first 175 patients.

 Journals: N Engl J Med. 1988 February; 318(7):393-7. M Sackmann, M Delius, T Sauerbruch et al

shock-wave fragmentation of gallstones, we used this nonsurgical procedure to treat 175 patients with


 Journals: Klin Khir. 1999; 0(4):64-6. A M Magomedov, G I Gertsen, Se Fey et al

shock-wave therapy of low frequency on metabolism of the main protein of the bone tissue (collagen)

108. Biliary extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy: short-term and long-term observations in an animal model

 Journals: Hepatogastroenterology. 1993 August; 40(4):388-95. H Vergunst, O T Terpstra, K Brakel et al

shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) using an electromagnetic lithotriptor were investigated in 26 pigs. After

109. [Experimental extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy using Soviet-made Urat-P]

 Journals: Urol Nefrol (Mosk). 1987 Nov-Dec; 0(6):8-12. N A Lopatkin, M M Shokurov, V A Golubchikov et al


110. Shock-wave lithotripsy: assessing a slam-bang technology.

 Journals: N Engl J Med. 1986 March; 314(13):845-7. A G Mulley, Jr


111. [Laser-induced shockwave lithotripsy--in vitro trial and animal experiment studies].

 Journals: Langenbecks Arch Chir. 1988 January; 373(2):104-8. H Wenk, W Benecke, S Thomas et al


112. Acute and chronic bioeffects of single and multiple doses of piezoelectric shockwaves (EDAP LT.01).

 Journals: J Urol. 1991 February; 145(2):399-404. P C Ryan, B J Jones, E W Kay et al

shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) enabling treatment to be performed without anaesthesia or analgesia, but

113. [Extracorporeal shockwave destruction of urinary calculi after ultrasonic localization]

 Journals: J Urol (Paris). 1985; 91(5):247-50. X Martin, J L Mestas, D Cathignol et al


114. Shockwave-induced compound action potentials in the peripheral nerve.

 Journals: Z Rechtsmed. 1981 January; 86(4):239-43. H D Wehner, K Sellier

shockwaves the amplitudes of which are increased corresponding to the pressure intensity of the shockwaves.

115. [Structure and dynamics of photo-acoustic shock-waves in 193 nm excimer laser photo-ablation of the cornea]

 Journals: Fortschr Ophthalmol. 1991; 88(6):748-53. O Kermani, H Lubatschowski

shock-waves was 80 bar. At higher energy densities (500 mJ/cm2) the amplitude reaches 150 bar. When

116. Isolated pulmonary blast injury in rats--a new model using the extracorporeal shock-wave lithotriptor.

 Journals: Mil Med. 1989 June; 154(6):288-93. D Pode, E L Landau, G Lijovetzky et al

shock-wave lithotriptor, originally designed for the noninvasive treatment of nephrolithiasis, we were

117. [Computed tomography following extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) of the kidneys. I: Correlation with acute histopathological findings in experimental animals].

 Journals: Rofo. 1991 March; 154(3):231-7. T Schaub, M Kunisch, M Stadtbäumer et al


118. Compound action potentials in the peripheral nerve induced by shock-waves

 Journals: Acta Chir Scand Suppl. 1982; 508(0):179-84. H D Wehner, K Sellier

shockwaves. 2. The amplitude of the CAPs correspond to the magnitude of the shockwaves. 3. There is

119. Catheter-mediated electrical ablation: the relation between current and pulse width on voltage breakdown and shock-wave generation

 Journals: Circ Res. 1988 August; 63(2):409-14. G H Bardy, F Coltorti, R B Stewart et al

shock-wave generation during electrical catheter ablation of cardiac arrhythmias. The purpose of this

120. Shock-wave effect on anterior segment structures following experimental neodymium:YAG laser iridectomy

 Journals: Ophthalmology. 1985 October; 92(10):1387-95. T M Richardson, S V Brown, J V Thomas et al

shock-wave on anterior segment structures adjacent to the iris. To investigate this question, iridectomies

121. Catheter-mediated electrical ablation: the relation between current and pulse width on voltage breakdown and shock-wave generation

 Journals: Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1986 November; 9(6 Pt 2):1381-3. G H Bardy, F Coltorti, R B Stewart et al

shock-wave generation using rectangular constant current pulses. Energy delivery appears to be optimal

122. [Computed tomography after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) of the kidneys. II. A correlation with the histopathologic findings 3 weeks later in an animal experiment].

 Journals: Rofo. 1991 May; 154(5):541-5. T Schaub, M Kunisch, M Stadtbäumer et al


123. Thermoacoustic Imaging and Therapy Guidance based on Ultra-short Pulsed Microwave Pumped Thermoelastic Effect Induced with Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles.Free Full-text

 Journals: Theranostics. 2017 January; 7(7):1976-1989. Liewei Wen, Sihua Yang, Junping Zhong et al

shockwave via the thermoelastic effect. Thereby, the reconstructed TA image by detecting TA signal is

124. Partial avulsion of the ulnaris lateralis and enthesiopathy of the lateral epicondyle of the humerus in a thoroughbred race horse.Free Full-text

 Journals: Ir Vet J. 2018 January; 71(0):10. Neal Ashton

shockwave therapy (ECSWT) and intra-lesional corticosteroid injections. Conclusion:This is the first

125. A Compact Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury Model in Mice.

 Journals: J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2016 February; 75(2):183-96. Hongxing Wang, Yi Ping Zhang, Jun Cai et al

shockwave durations were 3 to 4 milliseconds. Reflective shockwave peak readings at the position of

126. High-Fidelity Simulation of Primary Blast: Direct Effects on the Head.

 Journals: J Neurotrauma. 2016 July; 33(13):1181-93. Thomas W Sawyer, Yushan Wang, David V Ritzel et al

shockwaves. Rats were exposed in head-only fashion to single-pulse blastwaves of 15 to 30 psi static

127. Systematic review of emerging and innovative technologies for meat tenderisation.

 Journals: Meat Sci. 2017 October; 132(0):72-89. R D Warner, C K McDonnell, A E D Bekhit et al

shockwaves, ultrasound, pulsed electric field and muscle stretching can be applied to pre- and post-

128. Electrophysical Therapies for the Equine Athlete.

 Journals: Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2016 April; 32(1):127-47. Carrie Schlachter, Courtney Lewis

shockwave therapy, and vibration therapy.

129. Induction of oxidative and nitrosative damage leads to cerebrovascular inflammation in an animal model of mild traumatic brain injury induced by primary blast.Free Full-text

 Journals: Free Radic Biol Med. 2013 July; 60(0):282-91. P M Abdul Muneer, Heather Schuetz, Fang Wang et al

shock-wave exposure coinciding with the kinetic profile. Loosening of the vasculature and perivascular

130. Systematic Review of Nondrug, Nonsurgical Treatment of Shoulder Conditions.

 Journals: J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2017 June; 40(5):293-319. Cheryl Hawk, Amy L Minkalis, Raheleh Khorsan et al

shockwave therapy for calcific tendinitis RC. Low-level laser was the only modality for which there

131. Optoacoustic monitoring of cutting efficiency and thermal damage during laser ablation.

 Journals: Lasers Med Sci. 2014 May; 29(3):1029-35. Erwin Bay, Alexandre Douplik, Daniel Razansky

shockwave amplitude occurs as more material is being removed, indicating decrease in cutting efficiency,

132. Polymeric Cups for Cavitation-mediated Delivery of Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus.Free Full-text

 Journals: Mol Ther. 2016 September; 24(9):1627-33. Rachel Myers, Christian Coviello, Philippe Erbs et al

shockwaves and microstreaming resulting from the instigation of an ultrasound-induced event known as

133. A multi-mode shock tube for investigation of blast-induced traumatic brain injury.Free Full-text

 Journals: J Neurotrauma. 2011 January; 28(1):95-104. Dexter V Reneer, Richard D Hisel, Joshua M Hoffman et al

shockwaves produced by other driving sources. Helium-driven shockwaves more closely resembled RDX blasts,

134. Isolated Primary Blast Inhibits Long-Term Potentiation in Organotypic Hippocampal Slice Cultures.Free Full-text

 Journals: J Neurotrauma. 2016 April; 33(7):652-61. Edward W Vogel, 3rd, Gwen B Effgen, Tapan P Patel et al

shockwave interacting with the brain, remain unclear. Earlier in vivo studies in mice and rats have

135. Adhesive Capsulitis in Eight Dogs: Diagnosis and Management.Free Full-text

 Journals: Front Vet Sci. 2016 January; 3(0):55. Brittany J Carr, Sherman O Canapp, Debra A Canapp et al

shockwave therapy. Three patients received regenerative medicine treatment in the affected supraspinatus

136. Primary blast injury causes cognitive impairments and hippocampal circuit alterations.Free Full-text

 Journals: Exp Neurol. 2016 September; 283(Pt A):16-28. Matthew Beamer, Shanti R Tummala, David Gullotti et al

shockwave (primary blast). Our results show that exposure to primary blast alone results in changes

137. Photoacoustic "nanobombs" fight against undesirable vesicular compartmentalization of anticancer drugs.Free Full-text

 Journals: Sci Rep. 2015 January; 5(0):15527. Aiping Chen, Chun Xu, Min Li et al

shockwave, and the vesicle-sequestered contents were released, leading to redistribution of DOX from

138. New intrastromal corneal reshaping procedure using high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses.

 Journals: J Cataract Refract Surg. 2015 June; 41(6):1137-44. Taehee Han, Deng Li, Peter S Hersh et al

shockwave generation. This technique obviates the need for the laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)

139. Primary Blast Injury Depressed Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation through Disruption of Synaptic Proteins.

 Journals: J Neurotrauma. 2017 March; 34(5):1063-1073. Edward W Vogel, 3rd, Steve H Rwema, David F Meaney et al

shockwave interacting with the skull and brain, remain unclear. Our group has previously reported that

140. Nonpharmaceutical approaches to pain management.

 Journals: Top Companion Anim Med. 2014 March; 29(1):24-8. Lisa Corti

shockwave therapy and platelet-rich plasma-represent an attempt to eliminate the causes of pain at the

141. Systematic review of the management of canine osteoarthritis.

 Journals: Vet Rec. 2009 April; 164(14):418-24. R O Sanderson, C. Beata, R-M Flipo et al

shockwave therapy, gold wire acupuncture, hyaluronan, pentosan polysulphate, P54FP (extract of turmeric),

142. Vibration from a riveting hammer causes severe nerve damage in the rat tail model.

 Journals: Muscle Nerve. 2011 November; 44(5):795-804. Sandya Govinda Raju, Olaf Rogness, Magnus Persson et al

shock-wave vibration from a riveting hammer to simulate bucking bar exposure. Rat tails were vibrated

143. The long-term effects of extracorporeal shock waves on the epiphysis of the adolescent rat.

 Journals: J Orthop Sci. 2013 January; 18(1):159-64. Zekeriya Oztemur, Hayati Oztürk, Selahattin Ozyurek et al

shockwaves were applied, once, to the left knees of the rats. In the ESW3000p group, 3000 pulses, at

144. Therapeutics in Practice: "Treatment Options for Hindlimb Proximal Suspensory Desmitis"Free Full-text

 Journals: Compendium - Equine Edition. Sep-Oct 2007; 2(5):266-272. Scott Harper

shock-wave therapy, intralesional injections, surgery) may be needed.

145. Evaluation of the LithoGold LG-380 lithotripter: in vitro acoustic characterization and assessment of renal injury in the pig model.Free Full-text

 Journals: J Endourol. 2013 May; 27(5):631-9. Yuri A Pishchalnikov, James A McAteer, James C Williams, Jr et al

shockwaves (SW) administered by a multistep power ramping protocol at 60 SW/min, and when animals were

146. Cutting to Cure — UrolithiasisFree Full-text

 Journals: Compendium - Equine Edition. Apr 2009; 4(3):125-133. Alicia Foley, Sabrina H Brounts, Jan F Hawkins

shock-wave therapies, are less invasive and can be used to reduce patient morbidity and improve surgical

147. Ureteral obstructions in dogs and cats: a review of traditional and new interventional diagnostic and therapeutic options.

 Journals: J Vet Emerg Crit Care. 2011 April; 21(2):86-103. Allyson C Berent

shockwave lithotripsy, intracorporeal lithotripsy via retrograde ureteroscopy or antegrade percutaneous

148. Histological and biochemical analysis of mechanical and thermal bioeffects in boiling histotripsy lesions induced by high intensity focused ultrasound.Free Full-text

 Journals: Ultrasound Med Biol. 2013 March; 39(3):424-38. Yak-Nam Wang, Tatiana Khokhlova, Michael Bailey et al

shockwave heating and millisecond boiling in high-intensity focused ultrasound fields can result in

149. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of bone marrow lesions in the equine distal tarsus

 Journals: Equine Vet Educ. 2012 May; 24(5):236-241. Marianna Miggi, D. D. Zani, D De Zani et al

shockwave therapy, one received intra-articular medication. Two of the horses returned to previous athletic

150. Microstructure alterations in beef intramuscular connective tissue caused by hydrodynamic pressure processing.

 Journals: Meat Sci. 2013 November; 95(3):603-7. H Zuckerman, B C Bowker, J S Eastridge et al

shockwave alterations to connective tissue contribute to the meat tenderization of HDP


Reference Articles on Digital Thermography (IR technology)

1. Scrotal infrared digital thermography as a predictor of seasonal effects on sperm traits in Braford bulls.

 Journals: Int J Biometeorol. 2015 March; 59(3):357-64. Silvio Renato Oliveira Menegassi, Júlio Otavio Jardim Barcellos, Eduardo Antunes Dias et al

thermography. Sperm motility (M), mass motion (MM), and vigor (VIG) were evaluated in sperm samples
Keywords: Thermography | Cattle | Food Animals | Journals

2. Investigation of body and udder skin surface temperature differentials as an early indicator of mastitis in Holstein Friesian crossbred cows using digital infrared thermography technique.Free Full-text

 Journals: Vet World. 2016 December; 9(12):1386-1391. M Sathiyabarathi, S Jeyakumar, A Manimaran et al

thermography (IRT) technique and its interrelationship with conventional mastitis indicators for the

3. The Use of Digital Thermography for Environmental Evaluation of Reptile Enclosures

 Journals: J Herpetol Med Surg. 2003 ; 13(1):38-42. Gregory J Fleming, Ramiro Isaza, Mark F Spire et al

digital thermography, a visual assessment of the thermal environment can be made. This study used thermal
Keywords: digital thermometers Thermography environment temperature Housing, Animal RE ; ; SPECIES = reptiles;

4. Detection of hoof lesions using digital infrared thermography in dairy cows.Free Full-text

 Journals: J Dairy Sci. 2012 February; 95(2):735-42. M Alsaaod, W Büscher

thermography (IRT) as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for early detection of foot pathologies in dairy
Keywords: Thermography | methods | Food Animals | Cattle | Journals

5. Assessing the Association Between Hoof Thermography and Hoof Doppler Ultrasonography for the Diagnosis of Lameness in Horses

 Journals: J Equine Vet Sci. 2014 February; 34(2):275-280. Teresa L Douthit, Jennifer M Bormann, Nora M Bello

digital thermographic camera. A series of bivariate linear mixed models were fitted to estimate the
Keywords: Thermography

6. Assessment of pregnancy in the late-gestation mare using digital infrared thermography.

 Journals: Theriogenology. 2009 August; 72(3):372-7. S Bowers, S Gandy, B Anderson et al

digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) to determine whether surface temperature gradient differences
Keywords: Thermography | methods | Horses | Journals

7. Does a magnetic blanket induce changes in muscular blood flow, skin temperature and muscular tension in horses?

 Journals: Equine Vet J. 2015 May; 47(3):302-7. A Edner, L G Lindberg, H Broström et al

digital infrared thermography, and MNTs by algometry. The horses' behaviour was filmed during the procedure

8. Association of digital cushion thickness with sole temperature measured with the use of infrared thermography.

 Journals: J Dairy Sci. 2014 July; 97(7):4208-15. G Oikonomou, P Trojacanec, E K Ganda et al

thermographic image was obtained, the thickness of the digital cushion was measured by ultrasonography.
Keywords: Thermography | veterinary | Food Animals | Cattle | Journals

9. Effects of the oral examination on the equine temporomandibular joint

 Journals: J Equine Vet Sci. 2016 August; 43(0):48–54. Tiago P Pereira, Filipe T Staut, Thaís S L Machado et al

digital palpation and thermography previous to (baseline values) and 6 hours after the removal of the

10. Use of infrared thermography to detect injections and palmar digital neurectomy in horses.

 Journals: Vet J. 2002 September; 164(2):129-41. Linda M Van Hoogmoed, Jack R Snyder

digital nerves, and palmar digital neurectomy. Thermographic images were obtained before and after the
Keywords: Thermography | methods | Horses | Journals

11. A field trial of infrared thermography as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for early detection of digital dermatitis in dairy cows.

 Journals: Vet J. 2014 February; 199(2):281-5. M Alsaaod, C Syring, J Dietrich et al

thermography (IRT) was used to detect digital dermatitis (DD) prior to routine claw trimming. A total
Keywords: Thermography | methods | Cattle | Food Animals | Journals

12. Estimating power curves of flying vertebratesFree Full-text

 Journals: J Exp Biol. 1999 December; 202(Pt 23):3449-61. J M Rayner

digital video thermography) enable power curves to be determined with confidence; flight muscle efficiency

13. Thermal studies of in-vivo vascular tissue fusion by argon laser

 Journals: J Invest Surg. 1988; 1(1):5-12. G Kopchok, R A White, W S Grundfest et al

digital thermographic camera. Forty 1-cm. welds were performed using powers of 0.50 (n = 24), 0.75 (n

14. CO2 and argon laser vascular welding: acute histologic and thermodynamic comparison

 Journals: Lasers Surg Med. 1988; 8(6):584-8. G E Kopchok, R A White, G H White et al

digital thermographic system with spatial and thermal resolution of +/-0.2 mm and +/-0.2 degree C, respectively,

15. Enterotomy fusion with laser energy: preliminary results in rabbit ileum

 Journals: J Invest Surg. 1989; 2(2):135-43. J Vlasak, G Kopchok, L Dayhovsky et al

digital thermographic camera. Healing of the fusions created by the two lasers was subsequently assessed

16. The role and importance of farriery in equine veterinary practice.

 Journals: Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2003 August; 19(2):273-83. Jay G Merriam

Digital radiography. 4. Thermography. 5. Nutritional and health counseling. Become the "local" expert

17. Evaluation of infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool to predict heat stress events in feedlot cattle.

 Journals: Am J Vet Res. 2017 July; 78(7):771-777. Ellen M Unruh, Miles E Theurer, Brad J White et al

digital thermal images of and assigned panting scores to calves near the periphery of the pen. Relationships
Keywords: Thermography | veterinary | Food Animals | Cattle | Journals

18. Microwave thermography: a non-invasive technique for investigation of injury of the superficial digital flexor tendon in the horse.

 Journals: Equine Vet J. 1992 July; 24(4):269-73. C M Marr

thermographic abnormalities.
Keywords: Thermography | veterinary | Horses | Journals

19. Thermographic imaging of superficial temperature in dogs sedated with medetomidine and butorphanol with and without MK-467 (L-659'066).Free Full-text

 Journals: Vet Anaesth Analg. 2013 March; 40(2):142-8. Mari Vainionpää, Kati Salla, Flavia Restitutti et al

Digital (DFT) and metatarsal footpad temperatures (MFT) were measured with thermographyThermograms

20. Morphologic, thermographic and 133Xe clearance studies on normal and diseased superficial digital flexor tendons in race horses.

 Journals: Equine Vet J. 1973 October; 5(4):156-61. B Stromberg

Keywords: Thermography | veterinary | Horses | Journals

21. Relationship among eye and muzzle temperatures measured using digital infrared thermal imaging and vaginal and rectal temperatures in hair sheep and cattle.Free Full-text

 Journals: J Anim Sci. 2014 November; 92(11):4949-55. W D George, R W Godfrey, R C Ketring et al

Thermography has been used in both humans and a wide range of animal species to measure body temperature
Keywords: Thermography | methods | Sheep | Cattle | Food Animals | Journals

22. Thermographic detection of dorsal metacarpal/metatarsal disease in 2-year-old Thoroughbred racehorses: a preliminary study

 Journals: J Equine Vet Sci. 2016 September; 44(0):37–41. Bernardo L Michelotto, Rita M V M Rocha, Pedro V Michelotto, Jr

digital palpation of the dorsal metacarpal region. The right and left metacarpal temperatures did not
Keywords: thermography


23. An investigation into the use of infrared thermography (IRT) as a rapid diagnostic tool for foot lesions in dairy cattle.

 Journals: Vet J. 2012 September; 193(3):674-8. J E Stokes, K A Leach, D C J Main et al

digital dermatitis (DD). Eighty-two cows which either had no skin lesions on the hind feet (controls,
Keywords: Thermography | methods | Food Animals | Cattle | Journals

24. Use of thermography to screen for subclinical bumblefoot in poultry.Free Full-text

 Journals: Poult Sci. 2009 June; 88(6):1176-80. C S Wilcox, J Patterson, H W Cheng

Thermographic imaging is a noninvasive diagnostic tool used to document the inflammatory process in
Keywords: Thermography | veterinary | Chickens | Birds | Food Animals | Poultry | Journals

25. Monitoring changes in body surface temperature associated with treadmill exercise in dogs by use of infrared methodology.

 Journals: J Therm Biol. 2017 October; 69(0):64-68. Maria Rizzo, Francesca Arfuso, Daniela Alberghina et al

thermography methodology.
Keywords: Thermography | methods | Dogs | Journals


Reference Articles for NMES

1. Nonlinear Modulation of Cutaneous Reflexes with Increasing Speed of Locomotion in Spinal Cats.Free Full-text

 Journals: J Neurosci. 2017 April; 37(14):3896-3912. Marie-France Hurteau, Yann Thibaudier, Charline Dambreville et al

muscle activity chronically and to stimulate the superficial peroneal nerve electrically to evoke cutaneous
Keywords: Stimulation | methods | Cats | Journals

2. Locomotion in intact and in brain cortex-ablated cats.

 Journals: Neuroscience. 2017 September; 358(0):37-48. Jose Roberto Lopez Ruiz, Luis Castillo Hernández, Braniff de la Torre Valdovinos et al

cutaneous reflexes (CR) produced by electrical stimulation of sural (SU) or saphenous (SAPH) nerves
Keywords: Muscle | physiology | Cats | Journals

3. Electrophysiologic studies of the facial reflexes of the dog

 Journals: Am J Vet Res. 1985 January; 46(1):229-34. L R Whalen

muscleCutaneous and subcutaneous electrical stimulation of the internal auricular branches of the
Keywords: Stimulation | Dogs | Journals

4. Measurement of anal and genitoanal reflexes in cats

 Journals: Am J Vet Res. 1991 January; 52(1):29-33. J R Cook, Jr, J E Oliver, Jr, P T Purinton

muscle after ipsilateral and contralateral electrical stimulation of the perineal skin. Genitoanal reflexes
Keywords: Stimulation | instrumentation | Cats | Journals

5. Effects of electrical and natural stimulation of skin afferents on the gamma-spindle system of the triceps surae muscle.

 Journals: Neurosci Res. 1989 August; 6(6):537-55. H Johansson, P Sjölander, P Sojka et al

cutaneous stimulation. Tests were made (a) during physiological stimulation of skin afferents of the
Keywords: Skin | innervation | Cats | Journals

6. Central command, but not muscle reflex, stimulates cutaneous sympathetic efferents of catsFree Full-text

 Journals: Am J Physiol. 1998 May; 274(5 Pt 2):H1552-9. J M Hill, M P Kaufman

cutaneous sympathetic fibers innervating the hairy skin of decerebrate cats. Electrical stimulation
Keywords: Muscle | physiology | Cats | Journals

7. Synaptic effects from chemically activated fine muscle afferents upon alpha-motoneurones in decerebrate and spinal cats

 Journals: Brain Res. 1981 February; 206(2):361-70. K D Kniffki, E D Schomburg, H Steffens

electrical stimulation of cutaneous and high threshold muscle afferents (mainly flexor motoneurones)
Keywords: Stimulation | Cats | Journals

8. Excitability changes in sacral afferents innervating the urethra, perineum and hindlimb skin of the cat during micturition.Free Full-text

 Journals: J Physiol. 1999 January; 514 ( Pt 2)(0):593-607. R R Buss, S J Shefchyk

cutaneous afferents in response to electrical stimulation of other perineal, urethral, hindlimb cutaneous
Keywords: Skin | innervation | Cats | Journals

9. Forelimb responses to cutaneous nerve stimulation during locomotion in intact cats

 Journals: Brain Res. 1985 March; 329(1-2):323-8. T Drew, S Rossignol

muscles to electrical stimulation of the cutaneous superficial radial nerve were recorded during treadmill
Keywords: Skin | innervation | Cats | Journals

10. Rubrospinal and rubrobulbospinal influences on dynamic and static gamma-motoneurones

 Journals: Behav Brain Res. 1988 Apr-May; 28(1-2):97-107. H Johansson

stimulation of muscleskin and joint nerves were investigated in the same sample of intra- and extracellularly
Keywords: Skin | innervation | Cats | Journals

11. Responses of neurons in VPL and VPL-VL region of the cat to algesic stimulation of muscle and tendon.

 Journals: J Neurophysiol. 1983 March; 49(3):649-61. K D Kniffki, K Mizumura

electrical stimulation of cutaneous and muscle nerves, by noxious and innocuous mechanical stimulation
Keywords: Stimulation | Cats | Journals

12. Activation of spinal cord interneurons which process inputs from the femoral-saphenous vein

 Journals: Brain Res. 1985 December; 359(1-2):383-7. B J Yates, F J Thompson

muscle and cutaneous afferents. Stimulation of several different muscle nerves drove single interneurons.
Keywords: Stimulation | Cats | Journals

13. Contribution of group III and IV muscle afferents to multisensorial spinal motor control in cats

 Journals: Neurosci Res. 1999 March; 33(3):195-206. E D Schomburg, H Steffens, K D Kniffki

Skin, joint and group I-II muscle afferents were stimulated by graded electrical stimulation of various
Keywords: Stimulation | Cats | Journals

14. Inhibition of midbrain-evoked tonic and rhythmic motor activity by cutaneous stimulation in decerebrate cats.

 Journals: Exp Brain Res. 2003 March; 149(2):159-66. C A Beyaert, P Haouzi, F Marchal

electrical stimulation of cervical cutaneous afferents was analysed on both the centrally induced tonic
Keywords: Skin | Cats | Journals

15. The distal hindlimb musculature of the cat. Cutaneous reflexes during locomotion.

 Journals: Exp Brain Res. 1985 January; 58(3):594-603. L D Abraham, W B MARKS, G E Loeb

muscle responses to brief electrical stimulation of cutaneous nerves during walking on a treadmill.
Keywords: Stimulation | Cats | Journals

16. Stimulating somatic afferent fibers alters coronary arterial resistance.

 Journals: Am J Physiol. 1989 June; 256(6 Pt 2):R1331-9. K H Pitetti, G A Iwamoto, J H Mitchell et al

electrical stimulation of branches of musclecutaneous, and mixed nerves in the hindlimb of anesthetized
Keywords: Stimulation | Dogs | Journals

17. Responses of neurons in feline trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (medullary dorsal horn) to cutaneous, intraoral, and muscle afferent stimuli.

 Journals: J Neurophysiol. 1986 February; 55(2):227-43. N Amano, J W Hu, B J Sessle

cutaneous nociceptive neurons, and the responsiveness of most of the neurons excited by electrical stimulation
Keywords: Stimulation | Cats | Journals

18. Vestibular stimulation leads to distinct hemodynamic patterning.

 Journals: Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2000 July; 279(1):R118-25. I A Kerman, B A Emanuel, B J Yates

electrical stimulation of muscle and cutaneous afferents produced pressor responses (20 +/- 6 mmHg)
Keywords: Stimulation | Cats | Journals

19. Responses in sympathetic nerves of the dog evoked by stimulation of somatic nerves

 Journals: Brain Res. 1979 April; 165(2):219-33. J G Whitwam, C Kidd, I V Fussey

electrical stimulation of cutaneous and muscle nerves in anaesthetized mongrel dogs were observed. Supramaximal
Keywords: Muscles | innervation | Dogs | Journals

20. Reflex bladder activity induced by electrical stimulation of hind limb somatic afferents in the cat.

 Journals: J Auton Nerv Syst. 1980 March; 1(3):229-41. A Sato, Y Sato, R F Schmidt

cutaneous and muscle nerves were stimulated electrically, and the resulting changes in vesical functions
Keywords: Stimulation | Cats | Journals

21. Reanimation of paralyzed laryngeal muscles by electrical stimulation synchronized with inspiration

 Journals: Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006 July; 135(1):40-5. Fang-Lu Chi, Jiang-Hua Jing, Chun-Fu Dai

muscles were degenerated, electrical stimulation was used to prevent muscular atrophy. CONCLUSIONS:
Keywords: Stimulation Therapy | methods | Cats | Journals

22. Tubular system excitability: an essential component of excitation-contraction coupling in fast-twitch fibres of vertebrate skeletal muscle.

 Journals: J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2006 January; 27(5-7):259-74. D George Stephenson

electrical stimulation under controlled conditions. Parameters that can be assessed include the threshold
Keywords: Muscle Contraction | Vertebrates | Journals

23. Differential vulnerability of 3 rapidly conducting somatosensory pathways in the dog with vitamin B6 neuropathy.

 Journals: Agents Actions. 1985 September; 16(6):567-79. U SCHAEPPI, G Krinke

electrical stimulation at neural, muscular or cutaneous sites of the contralateral hind leg. Stimulation
Keywords: Stimulation | Dogs | Journals

24. Phase-dependent modulation of dorsal root potentials evoked by peripheral nerve stimulation during fictive locomotion in the cat

 Journals: Brain Res. 1990 December; 537(1-2):1-13. J P Gossard, S Rossignol

electrical stimulation of cutaneous and muscle nerves of both hindlimbs at various phases of the fictive
Keywords: Stimulation | Cats | Journals

25. Electrical activation to the parasternal intercostal muscles during high-frequency spinal cord stimulation in dogs.Free Full-text

 Journals: J Appl Physiol. 2015 January; 118(2):148-55. Anthony F Dimarco, Krzysztof E Kowalski

stimulation (HF-SCS) is a novel technique of inspiratory muscle activation involving stimulation of
Keywords: Stimulation | Dogs | Journals


Reference Articles for Therapeutic Ultrasound

1. Physical agent modalities in physical therapy and rehabilitation of small animals.

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. January 2015;45(1):29-44.

2. Conservative treatment of partial gastrocnemius muscle avulsions in dogs using therapeutic ultrasound -- A force plate study.

Language: English

Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. January 2009;22(3):243-8.

DOI: 10.3415/VCOT-08-07-0059

M C Mueller 1, G Gradner, K M Hittmair, G Dupré, B A Bockstahler

3. Noninvasive thrombolysis using pulsed ultrasound cavitation therapy - histotripsy.

Language: English

Ultrasound Med Biol. December 2009;35(12):1982-94.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2009.07.001

Adam D Maxwell 1, Charles A Cain, Alexander P Duryea, Lingqian Yuan, Hitinder S Gurm, Zhen Xu

4. Postsurgical Enhancement of Fracture Repair: Biophysical Alternatives to Bone Grafting

Compend Contin Educ Vet. May 2001;23(5):423-430. 58 Refs

David R Mason 1, Walter C Renberg

5. Facilitation of Fracture Repair Using Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound

Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. December 2000;13(4):158-164. 65 Refs

S J Warden 1, W T Wong, K L Bennell, J M McMeeken, J. D. War

6. A preliminary study on the effect of ultrasound therapy on the healing of surgically severed achilles tendons in five dogs

J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. August 2002;49(6):321-8.

N S Saini 1, K S Roy, P S Bansal, B Singh, P S Simran

7. The effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on autologous osteochondral plugs in a canine model

Am J Sports Med. September 2008;36(9):1733-41.

Stephen D Cook 1, Samantha L Salkeld, Laura P Patron, Elizabeth S Doughty, Deryk G Jones


Reference Articles on Pulsed Signal Therapy 

1. Randomized, controlled clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of pulsed signal therapy in dogs with osteoarthritis.

 Journals: Vet Surg. 2013 April; 42(3):250-4. Meghan O Sullivan, Wanda J Gordon-Evans, Kim E Knap et al

treatment group, 35 dogs - pulsed signal therapy for 1 hour on 9 consecutive days - weight: 26.3
Keywords: therapy | Dogs | Journals

2. Simulation of Low-Intensity Ultrasound Propagating in a Beagle Dog Dentoalveolar Structure to Investigate the Relations between Ultrasonic Parameters and Cementum Regeneration.

 Journals: Ultrasound Med Biol. 2015 August; 41(8):2173-90. Behzad Vafaeian, Saleh Al-Daghreer, Marwan El-Rich et al

signals induced by the low-intensity pulsed ultrasound. However, the stimulatory mechanism triggering
Keywords: Therapy | methods | Dogs | Journals

3. Differential voltammetric measurement of catecholamines and ascorbic acid at surface-modified carbon filament microelectrodes

 Journals: Brain Res. 1982 March; 235(1):179-84. P M Plotsky

pulse voltammetric scans. The contribution of current from DOPAC to the catecholamine signal was minimized

4. [Effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on periodontitis in Beagle dogs].

 Journals: Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2012 March; 43(2):183-6. Ni Dong, Jin-Lin Song, Ge Feng et al

signal, and 1 kHz of repetition rate were applied to the dogs for 8 weeks (once a day and 20 minutes
Keywords: therapy | Dogs | Journals

5. Synthesis of monopolar ultrasound pulses for therapy: the frequency-compounding transducer.

 Journals: IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control. 2014 July; 61(7):1123-36. Kuang-Wei Lin, Timothy L Hall, Robert J McGough et al

therapy, short acoustic pulses (<2 cycles) can produce precise tissue ablation wherein lesion formation
Keywords: Signal Processing | instrumentation | Dogs | Journals


Reference Articles for Hydrotherapy and Rehabilitation


1. The Veterinary clinics of North America. Small animal practice

Journal site on the Web 

Saunders. (Published since 1979)

eISSN: 1878-1306; pISSN: 0195-5616;  Bimonthly

Volume 27 | Issue 4 (July 1997)


The role of exercise and physical modalities in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

Language: English

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. July 1997;27(4):913-30. 33 Refs

D L Millis 1, D Levine


2. Physical therapy in the management of long bone fractures in small animals

Vet Clin North Am. May 1975;5(2):157-64.

A H Downer, V L Spear

3. Preliminary evaluation of the effects of photobiomodulation therapy and physical rehabilitation on early postoperative recovery of dogs undergoing hemilaminectomy for treatment of thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease.

Language: English

Am J Vet Res. February 2017;78(2):195-206.

Michael Bennaim, Mathilde Porato, Astrid Jarleton, Martin Hamon, James D Carroll, Kris Gommeren, Marc Balligand

4. Immediate physical therapy in dogs with rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament submitted to extracapsular surgical stabilization

Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec. February 2012;64(1):1.

L Berté, A Mazzanti, F Z Salbego, D V Beckmann, R P Santos, D Polidoro, R Baumhard

5. Daily controlled physiotherapy increases survival time in dogs with suspected degenerative myelopathy

J Vet Intern Med. 2006 Jul-Aug;20(4):927-32.

I Kathmann 1, S Cizinauskas, M G Doherr, F Steffen, A Jaggy

6. The role of physical medicine and rehabilitation for patients in palliative and hospice care.

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. May 2011;41(3):591-608.

DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2011.03.011

Robin Downing 1

7.Influence of in-house rehabilitation on the postoperative outcome of dogs with intervertebral disk herniation.

Language: English

Vet Surg. May 2017;46(4):566-573.

Michelle M Hodgson 1, John M Bevan 1, Richard B Evans 2, Thai I Johnson 1

8. Evidence for canine rehabilitation and physical therapy.

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. January 2015;45(1):1-27.

DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2014.09.001

Darryl L Millis 1, Ionut Alexandru Ciuperca 2

9. Veterinary rehabilitation and physical therapy. Preface.

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. January 2015;45(1):ix-x.

DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2014.10.001

Denis J Marcellin-Little 1, David Levine 2, Darryl L Millis 3

10. Rehabilitation therapy for elbow disorders in dogs.

Vet Surg. February 2009;38(2):301-7.

DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2008.00496.x

Sherman Canapp 1, David Acciani, Don Hulse, Kurt Schulz, Debra Canapp

11. Rehabilitation for the neurologic patient

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. November 2005;35(6):1389-409, viii. 35 Refs

Natasha Olby 1, Krista B Halling, Teresa R Glick

12. Physical rehabilitation of the canine neurologic patient.

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. January 2010;40(1):181-93. 8 Refs

DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2009.09.009

Marti G Drum 1

13. Physical Rehabilitation: Improving the Outcome in Dogs with Orthopedic Problems

Vet Med. June 2005;100(6):438-448. 68 Refs

Greg Arnold 1, Darryl L Millis

14. Rehabilitation after extra-articular stabilisation of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs.

Language: English

Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 2009;22(2):148-52.

S Jerre 1


Reference Articles for Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Technology

1. Sonography of the musculoskeletal system in dogs and cats.

Language: English

Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 1997 Mar-Apr;38(2):139-49.

M Kramer 1, M Gerwing, V Hach, E Schimk

2. Ultrasound Imaging of the Musculoskeletal System.

Language: English

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. May 2016;46(3):355-71, v.

DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2015.12.001

Cristi R Cook 1

3. [The importance of sonography in orthopedics for dogs].

Die Bedeutung der Sonographie in der Orthopädie beim Hund.

Language: German

Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. April 1996;109(4):130-5.

M Kramer 1, M Gerwing


Reference Articles for Microinvasive Arthroscopy

1. Arthroscopic Evaluation and Treatment of the Dysplastic Elbow

World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress Proceedings, 2015

R. Palmer, DVM, MS (Physiology), DACVS

Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA

2. Canine Arthroscopy

Western Veterinary Conference 2007

John T. Payne, DVM, MS, DACVS

Pittsburgh Veterinary Surgery
Pittsburgh, PA, USA

3. Arthroscopy in Small Animal Orthopedics

World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress Proceedings, 2011

Kei Hayashi, DVM, PhD, DACVS

School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA